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put randomness here!

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Re: put randomness here!

Post by [NH]Mr.Yankovic on Tue Jan 21, 2014 9:26 am

Ward Cunningham and co-author Bo Leuf, in their book The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web, described the essence of the Wiki concept as follows:[citation needed]
A wiki invites all users to edit any page or to create new pages within the wiki Web site, using only a plain-vanilla Web browser without any extra add-ons.
Wiki promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making page link creation almost intuitively easy and showing whether an intended target page exists or not.
A wiki is not a carefully crafted site for casual visitors. Instead, it seeks to involve the visitor in an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that constantly changes the Web site landscape.
A wiki enables communities to write documents collaboratively, using a simple markup language and a web browser. A single page in a wiki website is referred to as a "wiki page", while the entire collection of pages, which are usually well interconnected by hyperlinks, is "the wiki". A wiki is essentially a database for creating, browsing, and searching through information. A wiki allows non-linear, evolving, complex and networked text, argument and interaction.[6]
A defining characteristic of wiki technology is the ease with which pages can be created and updated. Generally, there is no review before modifications are accepted. Many wikis are open to alteration by the general public without requiring registration of user accounts. Many edits can be made in real-time and appear almost instantly online. This can facilitate abuse of the system. Private wiki servers require user authentication to edit pages, and sometimes even to read them.
Maged N. Kamel Boulos, Cito Maramba and Steve Wheeler write that the open wikis produce a process of Social Darwinism. "'Unfit' sentences and sections are ruthlessly culled, edited and replaced if they are not considered 'fit', which hopefully results in the evolution of a higher quality and more relevant page. Whilst such openness may invite 'vandalism' and the posting of untrue information, this same openness also makes it possible to rapidly correct or restore a 'quality' wiki page."[7]
Editing wiki pages
Some wikis have an "edit" button or link directly on the page being viewed, if the user has permission to edit the page. This leads to an editing page which allows participants to structure and format wiki pages with a simplified markup language, sometimes known as wikitext (for example, starting a line of text with an asterisk often sets up a bulleted list). The style and syntax of wikitexts can vary greatly among wiki implementations,[example needed] some of which also allow HTML tags. Wikis favour plain-text editing, with fewer and simpler conventions than HTML, for indicating style and structure. Although limiting access to HTML and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) of wikis limits user ability to alter the structure and formatting of wiki content, there are some benefits. Limited access to CSS promotes consistency in the look and feel, and having JavaScript disabled prevents a user from implementing code that may limit other users' access.
MediaWiki syntax Equivalent HTML Rendered output
"Take some more [[tea]]," the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly.

"I've had '''nothing''' yet," Alice replied in an offended tone, "so I can't take more."

"You mean you can't take ''less''?" said the Hatter. "It's very easy to take ''more'' than nothing." <p>"Take some more <a href="/wiki/Tea" title="Tea">tea</a>," the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly.</p>

<p>"I've had <b>nothing</b> yet," Alice replied in an offended tone, "so I can't take more."</p>

<p>"You mean you can't take <i>less</i>?" said the Hatter. "It's very easy to take <i>more</i> than nothing."</p>
"Take some more tea," the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly.
"I've had nothing yet," Alice replied in an offended tone, "so I can't take more."
"You mean you can't take less?" said the Hatter. "It's very easy to take more than nothing."
Wikis can make WYSIWYG editing available to users, usually by means of JavaScript or an ActiveX control that translates graphically entered formatting instructions into the corresponding HTML tags or wikitext. In those implementations, the markup of a newly edited, marked-up version of the page is generated and submitted to the server transparently, shielding the user from this technical detail. However, WYSIWYG controls do not always provide all of the features available in wikitext, and some users prefer not to use a WYSIWYG editor. Hence, many of these sites offer some means to edit the wikitext directly.
Some wikis keep a record of changes made to wiki pages; often, every version of the page is stored. This means that authors can revert to an older version of the page, should it be necessary because a mistake has been made or the page has been vandalized. Many implementations, like MediaWiki, allow users to supply an edit summary when they edit a page; this is a short piece of text summarising the changes. It is not inserted into the article, but is stored along with that revision of the page, allowing users to explain what has been done and why; this is similar to a log message when making changes to a revision-control system.
Navigation
Within the text of most pages there are usually a large number of hypertext links to other pages. This form of non-linear navigation is more "native" to wiki than structured/formalized navigation schemes. That said, users can also create any number of index or table-of-contents pages, with hierarchical categorization or whatever form of organization they like. These may be challenging to maintain by hand, as multiple authors create and delete pages in an ad hoc manner. Wikis can provide one or more ways to categorize or tag pages to support the maintenance of such index pages.
Some wikis have a backlink feature, which displays all pages that link to a given page. It is typical in a wiki to create links to pages that do not yet exist, as a way to invite others to share what they know about a subject new to the wiki.
Linking and creating pages
Links are created using a specific syntax, the so-called "link pattern" (also see CURIE). Originally, most wikis[citation needed] used CamelCase to name pages and create links. These are produced by capitalizing words in a phrase and removing the spaces between them (the word "CamelCase" is itself an example). While CamelCase makes linking very easy, it also leads to links which are written in a form that deviates from the standard spelling. To link to a page with a single-word title, one must abnormally capitalize one of the letters in the word (e.g. "WiKi" instead of "Wiki"). CamelCase-based wikis are instantly recognizable because they have many links with names such as "TableOfContents" and "BeginnerQuestions." It is possible for a wiki to render the visible anchor of such links "pretty" by reinserting spaces, and possibly also reverting to lower case. However, this reprocessing of the link to improve the readability of the anchor is limited by the loss of capitalization information caused by CamelCase reversal. For example, "RichardWagner" should be rendered as "Richard Wagner", whereas "PopularMusic" should be rendered as "popular music". There is no easy way to determine which capital letters should remain capitalized. As a result, wikis now have "free linking" using brackets, and some disable CamelCase by default.
Searching
Most wikis offer at least a title search, and sometimes a full-text search. The scalability of the search depends on whether the wiki engine uses a database. Some wikis, such as PmWiki, use flat files.[8] MediaWiki's first versions used flat files, but it was rewritten by Lee Daniel Crocker in the early 2000s to be a database application. Indexed database access is necessary for high speed searches on large wikis. Alternatively, external search engines such as Google Search can sometimes be used on wikis with limited searching functions in order to obtain more precise results.
History

Main article: History of wikis


Wiki Wiki Shuttle at Honolulu International Airport
WikiWikiWeb was the first wiki.[9] Ward Cunningham started developing WikiWikiWeb in Portland, Oregon, in 1994, and installed it on the Internet domain c2.com on March 25, 1995. It was named by Cunningham, who remembered a Honolulu International Airport counter employee telling him to take the "Wiki Wiki Shuttle" bus that runs between the airport's terminals. According to Cunningham, "I chose wiki-wiki as an alliterative substitute for 'quick' and thereby avoided naming this stuff quick-web."[10][11]
Cunningham was in part inspired by Apple's HyperCard, which he had used before but which was single-user.[12] Apple had designed a system allowing users to create virtual "card stacks" supporting links among the various cards. Cunningham developed Vannevar Bush's ideas by allowing users to "comment on and change one another's text."[1][13] Cunningham says his goals were to link together the experiences of multiple people to create a new literature to document programming patterns, and to harness people's natural desire to talk and tell stories with a technology that would feel comfortable to those not used to "authoring".[12]
Wikipedia became the most famous wiki site, entering the top ten most popular websites in 2007. In the early 2000s, wikis were increasingly adopted in enterprise as collaborative software. Common uses included project communication, intranets, and documentation, initially for technical users. Some companies use wikis as their only collaborative software and as a replacement for static intranets, and some schools and universities use wikis to enhance group learning. There may be greater use of wikis behind firewalls than on the public Internet. On March 15, 2007, the word wiki was listed in the online Oxford English Dictionary.[14]
Implementations

Wiki software is a type of collaborative software that runs a wiki system, allowing web pages to be created and edited using a common web browser. It may be implemented as a series of scripts behind an existing web server, or as a standalone application server that runs on one or more web servers. The content is stored in a file system, and changes to the content are stored in a relational database management system. A commonly implemented software package is MediaWiki, which runs Wikipedia. See the List of wiki software for further information. Alternatively, personal wikis run as a standalone application on a single computer. WikidPad is an example. Or even single local HTML file with JavaScript inside – like TiddlyWiki.
Wikis can also be created on a "wiki farm", where the server side software is implemented by the wiki farm owner. PBwiki, Socialtext, Wetpaint, and Wikia are popular examples of such services. Some wiki farms can also make private, password-protected wikis. Note that free wiki farms generally contain advertising on every page. For more information, see Comparison of wiki farms.
Trust and security

Controlling changes
"Recent changes" redirects here. For the Wikipedia help page, see Help:Recent changes.


History comparison reports highlight the changes between two revisions of a page.
Wikis are generally designed with the philosophy of making it easy to correct mistakes, rather than making it difficult to make them. Thus, while wikis are very open, they provide a means to verify the validity of recent additions to the body of pages. The most prominent, on almost every wiki, is the "Recent Changes" page—a specific list numbering recent edits, or a list of edits made within a given time frame.[15] Some wikis can filter the list to remove minor edits and edits made by automatic importing scripts ("bots").[16]
From the change log, other functions are accessible in most wikis: the revision history shows previous page versions and the diff feature highlights the changes between two revisions. Using the revision history, an editor can view and restore a previous version of the article. The diff feature can be used to decide whether or not this is necessary. A regular wiki user can view the diff of an edit listed on the "Recent Changes" page and, if it is an unacceptable edit, consult the history, restoring a previous revision; this process is more or less streamlined, depending on the wiki software used.[17]
In case unacceptable edits are missed on the "recent changes" page, some wiki engines provide additional content control. It can be monitored to ensure that a page, or a set of pages, keeps its quality. A person willing to maintain pages will be warned of modifications to the pages, allowing him or her to verify the validity of new editions quickly.[18] A watchlist is a common implementation of this.
Some wikis also implement "patrolled revisions", in which editors with the requisite credentials can mark some edits as not vandalism. A "flagged revisions" system can prevent edits from going live until they have been reviewed.[19]
Trustworthiness
Critics of publicly editable wiki systems argue that these systems could be easily tampered with, while proponents argue that the community of users can catch malicious content and correct it.[1] Lars Aronsson, a data systems specialist, summarizes the controversy as follows:
Most people, when they first learn about the wiki concept, assume that a Web site that can be edited by anybody would soon be rendered useless by destructive input. It sounds like offering free spray cans next to a grey concrete wall. The only likely outcome would be ugly graffiti and simple tagging, and many artistic efforts would not be long lived. Still, it seems to work very well.[9]
High editorial standards in medicine have led to the idea of expert-moderated wikis.[20] Some wikis allow one to link to specific versions of articles, which has been useful to the scientific community, in that expert peer reviewers could analyse articles, improve them and provide links to the trusted version of that article.[21]
Noveck points out that "participants are accredited by members of the wiki community, who have a vested interest in preserving the quality of the work product, on the basis of their ongoing participation." On controversial topics that have been subject to disruptive editing, a wiki may restrict editing to registered users.[22]
Security
The open philosophy of wiki - allowing anyone to edit content, does not ensure that every editor's intentions are well-mannered. For example, vandalism (changing wiki content to something offensive or nonsensical) can be a major problem. On larger wiki sites, such as those run by the Wikimedia Foundation, vandalism can go unnoticed for some period of time. Wikis, because of their open access nature, are susceptible to intentional disruption, known as "trolling". Wikis tend to take a soft-security[23][unreliable source] approach to the problem of vandalism; making damage easy to undo rather than attempting to prevent damage. Larger wikis often employ sophisticated methods, such as bots that automatically identify and revert vandalism and JavaScript enhancements that show characters that have been added in each edit. In this way vandalism can be limited to just "minor vandalism" or "sneaky vandalism", where the characters added/eliminated are so few that bots do not identify them and users do not pay much attention to them.[24][unreliable source]
The amount of vandalism a wiki receives depends on how open the wiki is. For instance, some wikis allow unregistered users, identified by their IP addresses, to edit content, whilst others limit this function to just registered users. Most wikis allow anonymous editing without an account,[25] but give registered users additional editing functions; on most wikis, becoming a registered user is a short and simple process. Some wikis require an additional waiting period before gaining access to certain tools. For example, on the English Wikipedia, registered users can rename pages only if their account is at least four days old. Other wikis such as the Portuguese Wikipedia use an editing requirement instead of a time requirement, granting extra tools after the user has made a certain number of edits to prove their trustworthiness and usefulness as an editor. Vandalism of Wikipedia is common (though policed and usually reverted) because it is extremely open, allowing anyone with a computer and Internet access to edit it, but making it grow rapidly. In contrast, Citizendium requires an editor's real name and short autobiography, affecting the growth of the wiki but sometimes helping stop vandalism.
Edit wars can also occur as users repetitively revert a page to the version they favor. Some wiki software allows an administrator to stop such edit wars by locking a page from further editing until a decision has been made on what version of the page would be most appropriate.[6]
Some wikis are in a better position than others to control behavior due to governance structures existing outside the wiki. For instance, a college teacher can create incentives for students to behave themselves on a class wiki they administer, by limiting editing to logged-in users and pointing out that all contributions can be traced back to the contributors. Bad behavior can then be dealt with in accordance with university policies.[8]
Potential malware vector
Malware can also be problem, as users can add links to sites hosting malicious code. For example, a German Wikipedia article about the Blaster Worm was edited to include a hyperlink to a malicious website. Users of vulnerable Microsoft Windows systems who followed the link would be infected.[6] A countermeasure is the use of software that prevents users from saving an edit that contains a link to a site listed on a blacklist of malware sites.[26]
Communities

Applications
The English Wikipedia has the largest user base among wikis on the World Wide Web[27] and ranks in the top 10 among all Web sites in terms of traffic.[28][needs update] Other large wikis include the WikiWikiWeb, Memory Alpha, Wikivoyage and Susning.nu, a Swedish-language knowledge base. Medical and health-related wiki examples include Ganfyd, an online collaborative medical reference that is edited by medical professionals and invited non-medical experts.[7]
Many wiki communities are private, particularly within enterprises. They are often used as internal documentation for in-house systems and applications. Some companies use wikis to allow customers to help produce software documentation.[29] A study of corporate wiki users found that they could be divided into "synthesizers" and "adders" of content. Synthesizers' frequency of contribution was affected more by their impact on other wiki users, while adders' contribution frequency was affected more by being able to accomplish their immediate work.[30] In 2005, the Gartner Group, noting the increasing popularity of wikis, estimated that they would become mainstream collaboration tools in at least 50% of companies by 2009.[31][needs update] Wikis can be used for project management.[32][33][unreliable source]
Wikis have also been used in the academic community for sharing and dissemination of information across institutional and international boundaries.[34] In those settings, they have been found useful for collaboration on grant writing, strategic planning, departmental documentation, and committee work.[35] In the mid-2000s, the increasing trend amongst industries toward collaboration was placing a heavier impetus upon educators to make students proficient in collaborative work, inspiring even greater interest in wikis being used in the classroom.[6]
Wikis have found some use within the legal profession, and within government. Examples include the Central Intelligence Agency's Intellipedia, designed to share and collect intelligence, dKospedia, which was used by the American Civil Liberties Union to assist with review of documents pertaining to internment of detainees in Guantánamo Bay;[36] and the wiki of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, used to post court rules and allow practitioners to comment and ask questions. The United States Patent and Trademark Office operates Peer-to-Patent, a wiki to allow the public to collaborate on finding prior art relevant to examination of pending patent applications. Queens, New York has used a wiki to allow citizens to collaborate on the design and planning of a local park. Cornell Law School founded a wiki-based legal dictionary called Wex, whose growth has been hampered by restrictions on who can edit.[22]
WikiNodes
WikiNodes are pages on wikis that describe related wikis. They are usually organized as neighbors and delegates. A neighbor wiki is simply a wiki that may discuss similar content or may otherwise be of interest. A delegate wiki is a wiki that agrees to have certain content delegated to that wiki.[37]
One way of finding a wiki on a specific subject is to follow the wiki-node network from wiki to wiki; another is to take a Wiki "bus tour", for example: Wikipedia's Tour Bus Stop.
Participants
The four basic types of users who participate in wikis are reader, author, wiki administrator and system administrator. The system administrator is responsible for installation and maintenance of the wiki engine and the container web server. The wiki administrator maintains wiki content and is provided additional functions pertaining to pages (e.g. page protection and deletion), and can adjust users' access rights by, for instance, blocking them from editing.[38]
Growth factors
A study of several hundred wikis showed that a relatively high number of administrators for a given content size is likely to reduce growth;[39] that access controls restricting editing to registered users tends to reduce growth; that a lack of such access controls tends to fuel new user registration; and that higher administration ratios (i.e. admins/user) have no significant effect on content or population growth.[40]
Conferences

Conferences and meetings about wikis in general include:
The International Symposium on Wikis (WikiSym), a conference dedicated to wiki research and practice in general.
RecentChangesCamp, an unconference on wiki-related topics
Conferences on specific wiki sites and applications include:
Atlassian Summit, an annual conference for users of Atlassian software, including Confluence[41]
RegioWikiCamp, a semi-annual unconference on "regiowikis", or wikis on cities and other geographic areas.[42]
SMWCon, a bi-annual conference for users and developers of Semantic MediaWiki.[43]
TikiFest, a frequently held meeting for users and developers of Tiki Wiki CMS Groupware.[44]
Wikimania, an annual conference dedicated to the research and practice of Wikimedia Foundation projects like Wikipedia.
Rules

Wikis typically have a set of rules governing user behavior. Wikipedia, for instance, has a labyrinthine set of policies and guidelines summed up in its five pillars: Wikipedia is an encyclopedia; Wikipedia has a neutral point of view; Wikipedia is free content; Wikipedians should interact in a respectful and civil manner; and Wikipedia does not have firm rules. Many wikis have adopted a set of commandments. For instance, Conservapedia commands, among other things, that its editors use "B.C." rather than "B.C.E." when referring to years prior to the common era and refrain from "unproductive activity."[45] One teacher instituted a commandment for a class wiki, "Wiki unto others as you would have them wiki unto you."[8]
Legal environment

Joint authorship of articles, in which different users participate in correcting, editing, and compiling the finished product, can also cause editors to become tenants in common of the copyright, making it impossible to republish without the permission of all co-owners, some of whose identities may be unknown due to pseudonymous or anonymous editing.[6] However, where persons contribute to a collective work such as an encyclopedia, there is no joint ownership if the contributions are separate and distinguishable.[46] Despite most wikis' tracking of individual contributions, the action of contributing to a wiki page is still arguably one of jointly correcting, editing, or compiling which would give rise to joint ownership.
Some copyright issues can be alleviated through the use of an open content license. Version 2 of the GNU Free Documentation License includes a specific provision for wiki relicensing; Creative Commons licenses are also popular. When no license is specified, an implied license to read and add content to a wiki may be deemed to exist on the grounds of business necessity and the inherent nature of a wiki, although the legal basis for such an implied license may not exist in all circumstances.[citation needed]
Wikis and their users can be held liable for certain activities that occur on the wiki. If a wiki owner displays indifference and forgoes controls (such as banning copyright infringers) that he could have exercised to stop copyright infringement, he may be deemed to have authorized infringement, especially if the wiki is primarily used to infringe copyrights or obtains direct financial benefit, such as advertising revenue, from infringing activities.[6] In the United States, wikis may benefit from Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act, which protects sites that engage in "Good Samaritan" policing of harmful material, with no requirement on the quality or quantity of such self-policing.[47] However, it has also been argued that a wiki's enforcement of certain rules, such as anti-bias, verifiability, reliable sourcing, and no-original-research policies, could pose legal risks.[48] When defamation occurs on a wiki, theoretically all users of the wiki can be held liable, because any of them had the ability to remove or amend the defamatory material from the "publication." It remains to be seen whether wikis will be regarded as more akin to an internet service provider, which is generally not held liable due to its lack of control over publications' contents, than a publisher.[6]
It has been recommended that trademark owners monitor what information is presented about their trademarks on wikis, since courts may use such content as evidence pertaining to public perceptions. Joshua Jarvis notes, "Once misinformation is identified, the trade mark owner can simply edit the entry."[49]
See also

Portal icon Internet portal
Comparison of wiki software
Content management system
Dispersed knowledge
History of wikis
List of wikis
Mass collaboration
Universal Edit Button
Wikis and education
References

^ Jump up to: a b c "wiki", Encyclopædia Britannica (London: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.) 1, 2007, retrieved April 10, 2008
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^ Jump up to: a b MNK Boulos, I Maramba, S Wheeler (2006), "Wikis, blogs and podcasts: a new generation of Web-based tools for virtual collaborative clinical practice and education", BMC medical education (BMC Medical Education) 6: 41, doi:10.1186/1472-6920-6-41, PMC 1564136, PMID 16911779
^ Jump up to: a b c Naomi Augar, Ruth Raitman and Wanlei Zhou (2004), Teaching and learning online with wikis, Beyond the comfort zone
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^ Jump up to: a b Noveck, Beth Simone (March 2007), "Wikipedia and the Future of Legal Education", Journal of Legal Education 57 (1)(subscription required)
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Further reading

Ebersbach, Anja (2008), Wiki: Web Collaboration, Springer Science+Business Media, ISBN 3-540-35150-7
Leuf, Bo (April 13, 2001), The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web, Addison–Wesley, ISBN 0-201-71499-X
Mader, Stewart (December 10, 2007), Wikipatterns, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-470-22362-6
Tapscott, Don (April 17, 2008), Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything, Portfolio Hardcover, ISBN 1-59184-193-3
External links

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Wikiversity has learning materials about Wiki
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wiki software.
WikiIndex, a directory of wikis
Exploring with Wiki, an interview with Ward Cunningham by Bill Verners
WikiMatrix, a website for comparing wiki software and hosts
WikiPapers, a wiki about publications about wikis
WikiTeam, a volunteer group to preserve wikis
Murphy, Paula (April 2006). Topsy-turvy World of Wiki. University of California.
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Your move Guys....
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Re: put randomness here!

Post by [NH]CommandoChris on Tue Jan 21, 2014 9:41 am

Did u just copy and paste the Wikipedia page on Wikis?

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Re: put randomness here!

Post by [NH]Mr.Yankovic on Tue Jan 21, 2014 10:02 am

[NH]CommandoChris wrote:Did u just copy and paste the Wikipedia page on Wikis?
No I typed it all out, I can type 92 WPM
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Re: put randomness here!

Post by [NH]DarkWarrior on Tue Jan 21, 2014 11:34 am

WTF YANK?!?! WHY?!?!?!?!

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Re: put randomness here!

Post by [NH]Mr.Yankovic on Tue Jan 21, 2014 12:31 pm

[NH]the_dark_warrior wrote:WTF YANK?!?! WHY?!?!?!?!
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Re: put randomness here!

Post by [NH]DarkWarrior on Tue Jan 21, 2014 2:29 pm

We've been over this... stop it. PLEASE.

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Re: put randomness here!

Post by [NH]_$rijapto on Tue Jan 21, 2014 11:41 pm

Lol he got you there  Laughing 
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Re: put randomness here!

Post by [NH]Veritas on Tue Jan 21, 2014 11:46 pm

[NH]Mr.Yankovic wrote:Ward Cunningham and co-author Bo Leuf, in their book The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web, described the essence of the Wiki concept as follows:[citation needed]
A wiki invites all users to edit any page or to create new pages within the wiki Web site, using only a plain-vanilla Web browser without any extra add-ons.
Wiki promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making page link creation almost intuitively easy and showing whether an intended target page exists or not.
A wiki is not a carefully crafted site for casual visitors. Instead, it seeks to involve the visitor in an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that constantly changes the Web site landscape.
A wiki enables communities to write documents collaboratively, using a simple markup language and a web browser. A single page in a wiki website is referred to as a "wiki page", while the entire collection of pages, which are usually well interconnected by hyperlinks, is "the wiki". A wiki is essentially a database for creating, browsing, and searching through information. A wiki allows non-linear, evolving, complex and networked text, argument and interaction.[6]
A defining characteristic of wiki technology is the ease with which pages can be created and updated. Generally, there is no review before modifications are accepted. Many wikis are open to alteration by the general public without requiring registration of user accounts. Many edits can be made in real-time and appear almost instantly online. This can facilitate abuse of the system. Private wiki servers require user authentication to edit pages, and sometimes even to read them.
Maged N. Kamel Boulos, Cito Maramba and Steve Wheeler write that the open wikis produce a process of Social Darwinism. "'Unfit' sentences and sections are ruthlessly culled, edited and replaced if they are not considered 'fit', which hopefully results in the evolution of a higher quality and more relevant page. Whilst such openness may invite 'vandalism' and the posting of untrue information, this same openness also makes it possible to rapidly correct or restore a 'quality' wiki page."[7]
Editing wiki pages
Some wikis have an "edit" button or link directly on the page being viewed, if the user has permission to edit the page. This leads to an editing page which allows participants to structure and format wiki pages with a simplified markup language, sometimes known as wikitext (for example, starting a line of text with an asterisk often sets up a bulleted list). The style and syntax of wikitexts can vary greatly among wiki implementations,[example needed] some of which also allow HTML tags. Wikis favour plain-text editing, with fewer and simpler conventions than HTML, for indicating style and structure. Although limiting access to HTML and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) of wikis limits user ability to alter the structure and formatting of wiki content, there are some benefits. Limited access to CSS promotes consistency in the look and feel, and having JavaScript disabled prevents a user from implementing code that may limit other users' access.
MediaWiki syntax Equivalent HTML Rendered output
"Take some more [[tea]]," the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly.

"I've had '''nothing''' yet," Alice replied in an offended tone, "so I can't take more."

"You mean you can't take ''less''?" said the Hatter. "It's very easy to take ''more'' than nothing." <p>"Take some more <a href="/wiki/Tea" title="Tea">tea</a>," the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly.</p>

<p>"I've had <b>nothing</b> yet," Alice replied in an offended tone, "so I can't take more."</p>

<p>"You mean you can't take <i>less</i>?" said the Hatter. "It's very easy to take <i>more</i> than nothing."</p>
"Take some more tea," the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly.
"I've had nothing yet," Alice replied in an offended tone, "so I can't take more."
"You mean you can't take less?" said the Hatter. "It's very easy to take more than nothing."
Wikis can make WYSIWYG editing available to users, usually by means of JavaScript or an ActiveX control that translates graphically entered formatting instructions into the corresponding HTML tags or wikitext. In those implementations, the markup of a newly edited, marked-up version of the page is generated and submitted to the server transparently, shielding the user from this technical detail. However, WYSIWYG controls do not always provide all of the features available in wikitext, and some users prefer not to use a WYSIWYG editor. Hence, many of these sites offer some means to edit the wikitext directly.
Some wikis keep a record of changes made to wiki pages; often, every version of the page is stored. This means that authors can revert to an older version of the page, should it be necessary because a mistake has been made or the page has been vandalized. Many implementations, like MediaWiki, allow users to supply an edit summary when they edit a page; this is a short piece of text summarising the changes. It is not inserted into the article, but is stored along with that revision of the page, allowing users to explain what has been done and why; this is similar to a log message when making changes to a revision-control system.
Navigation
Within the text of most pages there are usually a large number of hypertext links to other pages. This form of non-linear navigation is more "native" to wiki than structured/formalized navigation schemes. That said, users can also create any number of index or table-of-contents pages, with hierarchical categorization or whatever form of organization they like. These may be challenging to maintain by hand, as multiple authors create and delete pages in an ad hoc manner. Wikis can provide one or more ways to categorize or tag pages to support the maintenance of such index pages.
Some wikis have a backlink feature, which displays all pages that link to a given page. It is typical in a wiki to create links to pages that do not yet exist, as a way to invite others to share what they know about a subject new to the wiki.
Linking and creating pages
Links are created using a specific syntax, the so-called "link pattern" (also see CURIE). Originally, most wikis[citation needed] used CamelCase to name pages and create links. These are produced by capitalizing words in a phrase and removing the spaces between them (the word "CamelCase" is itself an example). While CamelCase makes linking very easy, it also leads to links which are written in a form that deviates from the standard spelling. To link to a page with a single-word title, one must abnormally capitalize one of the letters in the word (e.g. "WiKi" instead of "Wiki"). CamelCase-based wikis are instantly recognizable because they have many links with names such as "TableOfContents" and "BeginnerQuestions." It is possible for a wiki to render the visible anchor of such links "pretty" by reinserting spaces, and possibly also reverting to lower case. However, this reprocessing of the link to improve the readability of the anchor is limited by the loss of capitalization information caused by CamelCase reversal. For example, "RichardWagner" should be rendered as "Richard Wagner", whereas "PopularMusic" should be rendered as "popular music". There is no easy way to determine which capital letters should remain capitalized. As a result, wikis now have "free linking" using brackets, and some disable CamelCase by default.
Searching
Most wikis offer at least a title search, and sometimes a full-text search. The scalability of the search depends on whether the wiki engine uses a database. Some wikis, such as PmWiki, use flat files.[8] MediaWiki's first versions used flat files, but it was rewritten by Lee Daniel Crocker in the early 2000s to be a database application. Indexed database access is necessary for high speed searches on large wikis. Alternatively, external search engines such as Google Search can sometimes be used on wikis with limited searching functions in order to obtain more precise results.
History

Main article: History of wikis


Wiki Wiki Shuttle at Honolulu International Airport
WikiWikiWeb was the first wiki.[9] Ward Cunningham started developing WikiWikiWeb in Portland, Oregon, in 1994, and installed it on the Internet domain c2.com on March 25, 1995. It was named by Cunningham, who remembered a Honolulu International Airport counter employee telling him to take the "Wiki Wiki Shuttle" bus that runs between the airport's terminals. According to Cunningham, "I chose wiki-wiki as an alliterative substitute for 'quick' and thereby avoided naming this stuff quick-web."[10][11]
Cunningham was in part inspired by Apple's HyperCard, which he had used before but which was single-user.[12] Apple had designed a system allowing users to create virtual "card stacks" supporting links among the various cards. Cunningham developed Vannevar Bush's ideas by allowing users to "comment on and change one another's text."[1][13] Cunningham says his goals were to link together the experiences of multiple people to create a new literature to document programming patterns, and to harness people's natural desire to talk and tell stories with a technology that would feel comfortable to those not used to "authoring".[12]
Wikipedia became the most famous wiki site, entering the top ten most popular websites in 2007. In the early 2000s, wikis were increasingly adopted in enterprise as collaborative software. Common uses included project communication, intranets, and documentation, initially for technical users. Some companies use wikis as their only collaborative software and as a replacement for static intranets, and some schools and universities use wikis to enhance group learning. There may be greater use of wikis behind firewalls than on the public Internet. On March 15, 2007, the word wiki was listed in the online Oxford English Dictionary.[14]
Implementations

Wiki software is a type of collaborative software that runs a wiki system, allowing web pages to be created and edited using a common web browser. It may be implemented as a series of scripts behind an existing web server, or as a standalone application server that runs on one or more web servers. The content is stored in a file system, and changes to the content are stored in a relational database management system. A commonly implemented software package is MediaWiki, which runs Wikipedia. See the List of wiki software for further information. Alternatively, personal wikis run as a standalone application on a single computer. WikidPad is an example. Or even single local HTML file with JavaScript inside – like TiddlyWiki.
Wikis can also be created on a "wiki farm", where the server side software is implemented by the wiki farm owner. PBwiki, Socialtext, Wetpaint, and Wikia are popular examples of such services. Some wiki farms can also make private, password-protected wikis. Note that free wiki farms generally contain advertising on every page. For more information, see Comparison of wiki farms.
Trust and security

Controlling changes
"Recent changes" redirects here. For the Wikipedia help page, see Help:Recent changes.


History comparison reports highlight the changes between two revisions of a page.
Wikis are generally designed with the philosophy of making it easy to correct mistakes, rather than making it difficult to make them. Thus, while wikis are very open, they provide a means to verify the validity of recent additions to the body of pages. The most prominent, on almost every wiki, is the "Recent Changes" page—a specific list numbering recent edits, or a list of edits made within a given time frame.[15] Some wikis can filter the list to remove minor edits and edits made by automatic importing scripts ("bots").[16]
From the change log, other functions are accessible in most wikis: the revision history shows previous page versions and the diff feature highlights the changes between two revisions. Using the revision history, an editor can view and restore a previous version of the article. The diff feature can be used to decide whether or not this is necessary. A regular wiki user can view the diff of an edit listed on the "Recent Changes" page and, if it is an unacceptable edit, consult the history, restoring a previous revision; this process is more or less streamlined, depending on the wiki software used.[17]
In case unacceptable edits are missed on the "recent changes" page, some wiki engines provide additional content control. It can be monitored to ensure that a page, or a set of pages, keeps its quality. A person willing to maintain pages will be warned of modifications to the pages, allowing him or her to verify the validity of new editions quickly.[18] A watchlist is a common implementation of this.
Some wikis also implement "patrolled revisions", in which editors with the requisite credentials can mark some edits as not vandalism. A "flagged revisions" system can prevent edits from going live until they have been reviewed.[19]
Trustworthiness
Critics of publicly editable wiki systems argue that these systems could be easily tampered with, while proponents argue that the community of users can catch malicious content and correct it.[1] Lars Aronsson, a data systems specialist, summarizes the controversy as follows:
Most people, when they first learn about the wiki concept, assume that a Web site that can be edited by anybody would soon be rendered useless by destructive input. It sounds like offering free spray cans next to a grey concrete wall. The only likely outcome would be ugly graffiti and simple tagging, and many artistic efforts would not be long lived. Still, it seems to work very well.[9]
High editorial standards in medicine have led to the idea of expert-moderated wikis.[20] Some wikis allow one to link to specific versions of articles, which has been useful to the scientific community, in that expert peer reviewers could analyse articles, improve them and provide links to the trusted version of that article.[21]
Noveck points out that "participants are accredited by members of the wiki community, who have a vested interest in preserving the quality of the work product, on the basis of their ongoing participation." On controversial topics that have been subject to disruptive editing, a wiki may restrict editing to registered users.[22]
Security
The open philosophy of wiki - allowing anyone to edit content, does not ensure that every editor's intentions are well-mannered. For example, vandalism (changing wiki content to something offensive or nonsensical) can be a major problem. On larger wiki sites, such as those run by the Wikimedia Foundation, vandalism can go unnoticed for some period of time. Wikis, because of their open access nature, are susceptible to intentional disruption, known as "trolling". Wikis tend to take a soft-security[23][unreliable source] approach to the problem of vandalism; making damage easy to undo rather than attempting to prevent damage. Larger wikis often employ sophisticated methods, such as bots that automatically identify and revert vandalism and JavaScript enhancements that show characters that have been added in each edit. In this way vandalism can be limited to just "minor vandalism" or "sneaky vandalism", where the characters added/eliminated are so few that bots do not identify them and users do not pay much attention to them.[24][unreliable source]
The amount of vandalism a wiki receives depends on how open the wiki is. For instance, some wikis allow unregistered users, identified by their IP addresses, to edit content, whilst others limit this function to just registered users. Most wikis allow anonymous editing without an account,[25] but give registered users additional editing functions; on most wikis, becoming a registered user is a short and simple process. Some wikis require an additional waiting period before gaining access to certain tools. For example, on the English Wikipedia, registered users can rename pages only if their account is at least four days old. Other wikis such as the Portuguese Wikipedia use an editing requirement instead of a time requirement, granting extra tools after the user has made a certain number of edits to prove their trustworthiness and usefulness as an editor. Vandalism of Wikipedia is common (though policed and usually reverted) because it is extremely open, allowing anyone with a computer and Internet access to edit it, but making it grow rapidly. In contrast, Citizendium requires an editor's real name and short autobiography, affecting the growth of the wiki but sometimes helping stop vandalism.
Edit wars can also occur as users repetitively revert a page to the version they favor. Some wiki software allows an administrator to stop such edit wars by locking a page from further editing until a decision has been made on what version of the page would be most appropriate.[6]
Some wikis are in a better position than others to control behavior due to governance structures existing outside the wiki. For instance, a college teacher can create incentives for students to behave themselves on a class wiki they administer, by limiting editing to logged-in users and pointing out that all contributions can be traced back to the contributors. Bad behavior can then be dealt with in accordance with university policies.[8]
Potential malware vector
Malware can also be problem, as users can add links to sites hosting malicious code. For example, a German Wikipedia article about the Blaster Worm was edited to include a hyperlink to a malicious website. Users of vulnerable Microsoft Windows systems who followed the link would be infected.[6] A countermeasure is the use of software that prevents users from saving an edit that contains a link to a site listed on a blacklist of malware sites.[26]
Communities

Applications
The English Wikipedia has the largest user base among wikis on the World Wide Web[27] and ranks in the top 10 among all Web sites in terms of traffic.[28][needs update] Other large wikis include the WikiWikiWeb, Memory Alpha, Wikivoyage and Susning.nu, a Swedish-language knowledge base. Medical and health-related wiki examples include Ganfyd, an online collaborative medical reference that is edited by medical professionals and invited non-medical experts.[7]
Many wiki communities are private, particularly within enterprises. They are often used as internal documentation for in-house systems and applications. Some companies use wikis to allow customers to help produce software documentation.[29] A study of corporate wiki users found that they could be divided into "synthesizers" and "adders" of content. Synthesizers' frequency of contribution was affected more by their impact on other wiki users, while adders' contribution frequency was affected more by being able to accomplish their immediate work.[30] In 2005, the Gartner Group, noting the increasing popularity of wikis, estimated that they would become mainstream collaboration tools in at least 50% of companies by 2009.[31][needs update] Wikis can be used for project management.[32][33][unreliable source]
Wikis have also been used in the academic community for sharing and dissemination of information across institutional and international boundaries.[34] In those settings, they have been found useful for collaboration on grant writing, strategic planning, departmental documentation, and committee work.[35] In the mid-2000s, the increasing trend amongst industries toward collaboration was placing a heavier impetus upon educators to make students proficient in collaborative work, inspiring even greater interest in wikis being used in the classroom.[6]
Wikis have found some use within the legal profession, and within government. Examples include the Central Intelligence Agency's Intellipedia, designed to share and collect intelligence, dKospedia, which was used by the American Civil Liberties Union to assist with review of documents pertaining to internment of detainees in Guantánamo Bay;[36] and the wiki of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, used to post court rules and allow practitioners to comment and ask questions. The United States Patent and Trademark Office operates Peer-to-Patent, a wiki to allow the public to collaborate on finding prior art relevant to examination of pending patent applications. Queens, New York has used a wiki to allow citizens to collaborate on the design and planning of a local park. Cornell Law School founded a wiki-based legal dictionary called Wex, whose growth has been hampered by restrictions on who can edit.[22]
WikiNodes
WikiNodes are pages on wikis that describe related wikis. They are usually organized as neighbors and delegates. A neighbor wiki is simply a wiki that may discuss similar content or may otherwise be of interest. A delegate wiki is a wiki that agrees to have certain content delegated to that wiki.[37]
One way of finding a wiki on a specific subject is to follow the wiki-node network from wiki to wiki; another is to take a Wiki "bus tour", for example: Wikipedia's Tour Bus Stop.
Participants
The four basic types of users who participate in wikis are reader, author, wiki administrator and system administrator. The system administrator is responsible for installation and maintenance of the wiki engine and the container web server. The wiki administrator maintains wiki content and is provided additional functions pertaining to pages (e.g. page protection and deletion), and can adjust users' access rights by, for instance, blocking them from editing.[38]
Growth factors
A study of several hundred wikis showed that a relatively high number of administrators for a given content size is likely to reduce growth;[39] that access controls restricting editing to registered users tends to reduce growth; that a lack of such access controls tends to fuel new user registration; and that higher administration ratios (i.e. admins/user) have no significant effect on content or population growth.[40]
Conferences

Conferences and meetings about wikis in general include:
The International Symposium on Wikis (WikiSym), a conference dedicated to wiki research and practice in general.
RecentChangesCamp, an unconference on wiki-related topics
Conferences on specific wiki sites and applications include:
Atlassian Summit, an annual conference for users of Atlassian software, including Confluence[41]
RegioWikiCamp, a semi-annual unconference on "regiowikis", or wikis on cities and other geographic areas.[42]
SMWCon, a bi-annual conference for users and developers of Semantic MediaWiki.[43]
TikiFest, a frequently held meeting for users and developers of Tiki Wiki CMS Groupware.[44]
Wikimania, an annual conference dedicated to the research and practice of Wikimedia Foundation projects like Wikipedia.
Rules

Wikis typically have a set of rules governing user behavior. Wikipedia, for instance, has a labyrinthine set of policies and guidelines summed up in its five pillars: Wikipedia is an encyclopedia; Wikipedia has a neutral point of view; Wikipedia is free content; Wikipedians should interact in a respectful and civil manner; and Wikipedia does not have firm rules. Many wikis have adopted a set of commandments. For instance, Conservapedia commands, among other things, that its editors use "B.C." rather than "B.C.E." when referring to years prior to the common era and refrain from "unproductive activity."[45] One teacher instituted a commandment for a class wiki, "Wiki unto others as you would have them wiki unto you."[8]
Legal environment

Joint authorship of articles, in which different users participate in correcting, editing, and compiling the finished product, can also cause editors to become tenants in common of the copyright, making it impossible to republish without the permission of all co-owners, some of whose identities may be unknown due to pseudonymous or anonymous editing.[6] However, where persons contribute to a collective work such as an encyclopedia, there is no joint ownership if the contributions are separate and distinguishable.[46] Despite most wikis' tracking of individual contributions, the action of contributing to a wiki page is still arguably one of jointly correcting, editing, or compiling which would give rise to joint ownership.
Some copyright issues can be alleviated through the use of an open content license. Version 2 of the GNU Free Documentation License includes a specific provision for wiki relicensing; Creative Commons licenses are also popular. When no license is specified, an implied license to read and add content to a wiki may be deemed to exist on the grounds of business necessity and the inherent nature of a wiki, although the legal basis for such an implied license may not exist in all circumstances.[citation needed]
Wikis and their users can be held liable for certain activities that occur on the wiki. If a wiki owner displays indifference and forgoes controls (such as banning copyright infringers) that he could have exercised to stop copyright infringement, he may be deemed to have authorized infringement, especially if the wiki is primarily used to infringe copyrights or obtains direct financial benefit, such as advertising revenue, from infringing activities.[6] In the United States, wikis may benefit from Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act, which protects sites that engage in "Good Samaritan" policing of harmful material, with no requirement on the quality or quantity of such self-policing.[47] However, it has also been argued that a wiki's enforcement of certain rules, such as anti-bias, verifiability, reliable sourcing, and no-original-research policies, could pose legal risks.[48] When defamation occurs on a wiki, theoretically all users of the wiki can be held liable, because any of them had the ability to remove or amend the defamatory material from the "publication." It remains to be seen whether wikis will be regarded as more akin to an internet service provider, which is generally not held liable due to its lack of control over publications' contents, than a publisher.[6]
It has been recommended that trademark owners monitor what information is presented about their trademarks on wikis, since courts may use such content as evidence pertaining to public perceptions. Joshua Jarvis notes, "Once misinformation is identified, the trade mark owner can simply edit the entry."[49]
See also

Portal icon Internet portal
Comparison of wiki software
Content management system
Dispersed knowledge
History of wikis
List of wikis
Mass collaboration
Universal Edit Button
Wikis and education
References

^ Jump up to: a b c "wiki", Encyclopædia Britannica (London: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.) 1, 2007, retrieved April 10, 2008
^ Jump up to: a b Mitchell, Scott (July 2008), Easy Wiki Hosting, Scott Hanselman's blog, and Snagging Screens, MSDN Magazine, retrieved March 9, 2010
Jump up ^ Cunningham, Ward (June 27, 2002), What is a Wiki, WikiWikiWeb, retrieved April 10, 2008
Jump up ^ Hawaiian Words; Hawaiian to English [Retrieved September 19, 2008].
Jump up ^ Hasan, Heather (2012), Wikipedia, 3.5 million articles and counting, Rosen Publishing, p. 11, ISBN 9781448855575
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Black, Peter; Delaney, Hayden; Fitzgerald, Brian (2007), Legal Issues for Wikis: The Challenge of User-generated and Peer-produced Knowledge, Content and Culture 14, eLaw J.
^ Jump up to: a b MNK Boulos, I Maramba, S Wheeler (2006), "Wikis, blogs and podcasts: a new generation of Web-based tools for virtual collaborative clinical practice and education", BMC medical education (BMC Medical Education) 6: 41, doi:10.1186/1472-6920-6-41, PMC 1564136, PMID 16911779
^ Jump up to: a b c Naomi Augar, Ruth Raitman and Wanlei Zhou (2004), Teaching and learning online with wikis, Beyond the comfort zone
^ Jump up to: a b Ebersbach 2008, p. 10
Jump up ^ Cunningham, Ward (November 1, 2003), Correspondence on the Etymology of Wiki, WikiWikiWeb, retrieved March 9, 2007
Jump up ^ Cunningham, Ward (February 25, 2008), Wiki History, WikiWikiWeb, retrieved March 9, 2007
^ Jump up to: a b http://www.artima.com/intv/wiki.html
Jump up ^ Cunningham, Ward (July 26, 2007), Wiki Wiki Hyper Card, WikiWikiWeb, retrieved March 9, 2007
Jump up ^ Diamond, Graeme (March 1, 2007), March 2007 new words, OED, Oxford University Press, retrieved March 16, 2007
Jump up ^ Ebersbach 2008, p. 20
Jump up ^ Ebersbach 2008, p. 54
Jump up ^ Ebersbach 2008, p. 178
Jump up ^ Ebersbach 2008, p. 109
Jump up ^ Goldman, Eric, Wikipedia's Labor Squeeze and its Consequences 8, Journal on Telecommunications and High Technology Law
Jump up ^ Eugene Barsky; Dean Giustini (December 2007), "Introducing Web 2.0: wikis for health librarians", Journal of the Canadian Health Libraries Association 28 (4): 147–150, retrieved November 7, 2011. ISSN 1708-6892
Jump up ^ Kevin Yager (March 16, 2006), "Wiki ware could harness the Internet for science", Nature (Nature) 440 (7082): 278, Bibcode:2006Natur.440..278Y, doi:10.1038/440278a(subscription required)
^ Jump up to: a b Noveck, Beth Simone (March 2007), "Wikipedia and the Future of Legal Education", Journal of Legal Education 57 (1)(subscription required)
Jump up ^ Soft Security, UseModWiki, September 20, 2006, retrieved March 9, 2007
Jump up ^ "Security — Assothink Wiki" (in French). M3m.homelinux.org. Retrieved 2013-02-16.
Jump up ^ Ebersbach 2008, p. 108
Jump up ^ Meta.wikimedia.org
Jump up ^ WikiStats by S23, S23Wiki, April 3, 2008, retrieved April 7, 2007
Jump up ^ Alexa Web Search – Top 500, Alexa Internet, retrieved April 15, 2008
Jump up ^ C Müller, L Birn (September 6–8, 2006), Wikis for Collaborative Software Documentation, Proceedings of I-KNOW ’06
Jump up ^ A Majchrzak, C Wagner, D Yates (2006), "Corporate wiki users", Corporate wiki users: results of a survey, Symposium on Wikis, p. 99, doi:10.1145/1149453.1149472, ISBN 1-59593-413-8, retrieved April 25, 2011
Jump up ^ Conlin, Michelle (November 28, 2005), E-Mail Is So Five Minutes Ago, Businessweek
Jump up ^ HomePage [Retrieved 8 May 2012].
Jump up ^ Ways to Wiki: Project Management; 2010-01-04.
Jump up ^ MM Wanderley, D Birnbaum, J Malloch (2006), New Interfaces For Musical Expression, IRCAM – Centre Pompidou, p. 180, ISBN 2-84426-314-3
Jump up ^ Nancy T. Lombardo (June 2008), Putting Wikis to Work in Libraries 27 (2), Medical Reference Services Quarterly, pp. 129–145
Jump up ^ "SusanHu's FOIA Project UPDATE". Retrieved 2013-06-25.
Jump up ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20070810213702/http://wikinodes.wiki.taoriver.net/moin.fcg/FrequentlyAskedQuestions
Jump up ^ Cubric, Marija (2007), Analysis of the use of Wiki-based collaborations in enhancing student learning, University of Hertfordshire, retrieved April 25, 2011
Jump up ^ C Roth, D Taraborelli, N Gilbert (2008), Measuring wiki viability. An empirical assessment of the social dynamics of a large sample of wikis, The Centre for Research in Social Simulation, p. 3, "Figure 4 shows that having a relatively high number of administrators for a given content size is likely to reduce growth."
Jump up ^ C Roth, D Taraborelli, N Gilbert (2008), Measuring wiki viability. An empirical assessment of the social dynamics of a large sample of wikis, The Centre for Research in Social Simulation
Jump up ^ Summit.atlassian.com. Atlassian Summit homepage [Retrieved June 20, 2011].
Jump up ^ Wiki.regiowiki.eu. European RegioWikiSociety homepage; June 10, 2011 [Retrieved June 20, 2011].
Jump up ^ Semantic-mediawiki.org. SMWCon homepage [Retrieved June 20, 2011].
Jump up ^ Tiki.org. TikiFest homepage [Retrieved June 20, 2011].
Jump up ^ Conservapedia.com. Conservapedia.com; May 15, 2010 [Retrieved July 24, 2010].
Jump up ^ Redwood Music Ltd v. B Feldman & Co Ltd (RPC 385), 1979
Jump up ^ Kathleen M. Walsh & Sarah Oh (February 23, 2010), Self-Regulation: How Wikipedia Leverages User-Generated Quality Control Under Section 230
Jump up ^ Myers, Ken S. (2008), "Wikimmunity: Fitting the Communications Decency Act to Wikipedia", Harvard Journal of Law and Technology (The Berkman Center for Internet and Society) 20: 163
Jump up ^ Jarvis, Joshua (May 2008), Police your marks in a wiki world (179), Managing Intellectual Property, pp. 101–103
Further reading

Ebersbach, Anja (2008), Wiki: Web Collaboration, Springer Science+Business Media, ISBN 3-540-35150-7
Leuf, Bo (April 13, 2001), The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web, Addison–Wesley, ISBN 0-201-71499-X
Mader, Stewart (December 10, 2007), Wikipatterns, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-470-22362-6
Tapscott, Don (April 17, 2008), Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything, Portfolio Hardcover, ISBN 1-59184-193-3
External links

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Murphy, Paula (April 2006). Topsy-turvy World of Wiki. University of California.
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Post by [NH]Mr.Yankovic on Wed Jan 22, 2014 9:34 am

[NH]Veritas wrote:
[NH]Mr.Yankovic wrote:Ward Cunningham and co-author Bo Leuf, in their book The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web, described the essence of the Wiki concept as follows:[citation needed]
A wiki invites all users to edit any page or to create new pages within the wiki Web site, using only a plain-vanilla Web browser without any extra add-ons.
Wiki promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making page link creation almost intuitively easy and showing whether an intended target page exists or not.
A wiki is not a carefully crafted site for casual visitors. Instead, it seeks to involve the visitor in an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that constantly changes the Web site landscape.
A wiki enables communities to write documents collaboratively, using a simple markup language and a web browser. A single page in a wiki website is referred to as a "wiki page", while the entire collection of pages, which are usually well interconnected by hyperlinks, is "the wiki". A wiki is essentially a database for creating, browsing, and searching through information. A wiki allows non-linear, evolving, complex and networked text, argument and interaction.[6]
A defining characteristic of wiki technology is the ease with which pages can be created and updated. Generally, there is no review before modifications are accepted. Many wikis are open to alteration by the general public without requiring registration of user accounts. Many edits can be made in real-time and appear almost instantly online. This can facilitate abuse of the system. Private wiki servers require user authentication to edit pages, and sometimes even to read them.
Maged N. Kamel Boulos, Cito Maramba and Steve Wheeler write that the open wikis produce a process of Social Darwinism. "'Unfit' sentences and sections are ruthlessly culled, edited and replaced if they are not considered 'fit', which hopefully results in the evolution of a higher quality and more relevant page. Whilst such openness may invite 'vandalism' and the posting of untrue information, this same openness also makes it possible to rapidly correct or restore a 'quality' wiki page."[7]
Editing wiki pages
Some wikis have an "edit" button or link directly on the page being viewed, if the user has permission to edit the page. This leads to an editing page which allows participants to structure and format wiki pages with a simplified markup language, sometimes known as wikitext (for example, starting a line of text with an asterisk often sets up a bulleted list). The style and syntax of wikitexts can vary greatly among wiki implementations,[example needed] some of which also allow HTML tags. Wikis favour plain-text editing, with fewer and simpler conventions than HTML, for indicating style and structure. Although limiting access to HTML and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) of wikis limits user ability to alter the structure and formatting of wiki content, there are some benefits. Limited access to CSS promotes consistency in the look and feel, and having JavaScript disabled prevents a user from implementing code that may limit other users' access.
MediaWiki syntax Equivalent HTML Rendered output
"Take some more [[tea]]," the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly.

"I've had '''nothing''' yet," Alice replied in an offended tone, "so I can't take more."

"You mean you can't take ''less''?" said the Hatter. "It's very easy to take ''more'' than nothing." <p>"Take some more <a href="/wiki/Tea" title="Tea">tea</a>," the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly.</p>

<p>"I've had <b>nothing</b> yet," Alice replied in an offended tone, "so I can't take more."</p>

<p>"You mean you can't take <i>less</i>?" said the Hatter. "It's very easy to take <i>more</i> than nothing."</p>
"Take some more tea," the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly.
"I've had nothing yet," Alice replied in an offended tone, "so I can't take more."
"You mean you can't take less?" said the Hatter. "It's very easy to take more than nothing."
Wikis can make WYSIWYG editing available to users, usually by means of JavaScript or an ActiveX control that translates graphically entered formatting instructions into the corresponding HTML tags or wikitext. In those implementations, the markup of a newly edited, marked-up version of the page is generated and submitted to the server transparently, shielding the user from this technical detail. However, WYSIWYG controls do not always provide all of the features available in wikitext, and some users prefer not to use a WYSIWYG editor. Hence, many of these sites offer some means to edit the wikitext directly.
Some wikis keep a record of changes made to wiki pages; often, every version of the page is stored. This means that authors can revert to an older version of the page, should it be necessary because a mistake has been made or the page has been vandalized. Many implementations, like MediaWiki, allow users to supply an edit summary when they edit a page; this is a short piece of text summarising the changes. It is not inserted into the article, but is stored along with that revision of the page, allowing users to explain what has been done and why; this is similar to a log message when making changes to a revision-control system.
Navigation
Within the text of most pages there are usually a large number of hypertext links to other pages. This form of non-linear navigation is more "native" to wiki than structured/formalized navigation schemes. That said, users can also create any number of index or table-of-contents pages, with hierarchical categorization or whatever form of organization they like. These may be challenging to maintain by hand, as multiple authors create and delete pages in an ad hoc manner. Wikis can provide one or more ways to categorize or tag pages to support the maintenance of such index pages.
Some wikis have a backlink feature, which displays all pages that link to a given page. It is typical in a wiki to create links to pages that do not yet exist, as a way to invite others to share what they know about a subject new to the wiki.
Linking and creating pages
Links are created using a specific syntax, the so-called "link pattern" (also see CURIE). Originally, most wikis[citation needed] used CamelCase to name pages and create links. These are produced by capitalizing words in a phrase and removing the spaces between them (the word "CamelCase" is itself an example). While CamelCase makes linking very easy, it also leads to links which are written in a form that deviates from the standard spelling. To link to a page with a single-word title, one must abnormally capitalize one of the letters in the word (e.g. "WiKi" instead of "Wiki"). CamelCase-based wikis are instantly recognizable because they have many links with names such as "TableOfContents" and "BeginnerQuestions." It is possible for a wiki to render the visible anchor of such links "pretty" by reinserting spaces, and possibly also reverting to lower case. However, this reprocessing of the link to improve the readability of the anchor is limited by the loss of capitalization information caused by CamelCase reversal. For example, "RichardWagner" should be rendered as "Richard Wagner", whereas "PopularMusic" should be rendered as "popular music". There is no easy way to determine which capital letters should remain capitalized. As a result, wikis now have "free linking" using brackets, and some disable CamelCase by default.
Searching
Most wikis offer at least a title search, and sometimes a full-text search. The scalability of the search depends on whether the wiki engine uses a database. Some wikis, such as PmWiki, use flat files.[8] MediaWiki's first versions used flat files, but it was rewritten by Lee Daniel Crocker in the early 2000s to be a database application. Indexed database access is necessary for high speed searches on large wikis. Alternatively, external search engines such as Google Search can sometimes be used on wikis with limited searching functions in order to obtain more precise results.
History

Main article: History of wikis


Wiki Wiki Shuttle at Honolulu International Airport
WikiWikiWeb was the first wiki.[9] Ward Cunningham started developing WikiWikiWeb in Portland, Oregon, in 1994, and installed it on the Internet domain c2.com on March 25, 1995. It was named by Cunningham, who remembered a Honolulu International Airport counter employee telling him to take the "Wiki Wiki Shuttle" bus that runs between the airport's terminals. According to Cunningham, "I chose wiki-wiki as an alliterative substitute for 'quick' and thereby avoided naming this stuff quick-web."[10][11]
Cunningham was in part inspired by Apple's HyperCard, which he had used before but which was single-user.[12] Apple had designed a system allowing users to create virtual "card stacks" supporting links among the various cards. Cunningham developed Vannevar Bush's ideas by allowing users to "comment on and change one another's text."[1][13] Cunningham says his goals were to link together the experiences of multiple people to create a new literature to document programming patterns, and to harness people's natural desire to talk and tell stories with a technology that would feel comfortable to those not used to "authoring".[12]
Wikipedia became the most famous wiki site, entering the top ten most popular websites in 2007. In the early 2000s, wikis were increasingly adopted in enterprise as collaborative software. Common uses included project communication, intranets, and documentation, initially for technical users. Some companies use wikis as their only collaborative software and as a replacement for static intranets, and some schools and universities use wikis to enhance group learning. There may be greater use of wikis behind firewalls than on the public Internet. On March 15, 2007, the word wiki was listed in the online Oxford English Dictionary.[14]
Implementations

Wiki software is a type of collaborative software that runs a wiki system, allowing web pages to be created and edited using a common web browser. It may be implemented as a series of scripts behind an existing web server, or as a standalone application server that runs on one or more web servers. The content is stored in a file system, and changes to the content are stored in a relational database management system. A commonly implemented software package is MediaWiki, which runs Wikipedia. See the List of wiki software for further information. Alternatively, personal wikis run as a standalone application on a single computer. WikidPad is an example. Or even single local HTML file with JavaScript inside – like TiddlyWiki.
Wikis can also be created on a "wiki farm", where the server side software is implemented by the wiki farm owner. PBwiki, Socialtext, Wetpaint, and Wikia are popular examples of such services. Some wiki farms can also make private, password-protected wikis. Note that free wiki farms generally contain advertising on every page. For more information, see Comparison of wiki farms.
Trust and security

Controlling changes
"Recent changes" redirects here. For the Wikipedia help page, see Help:Recent changes.


History comparison reports highlight the changes between two revisions of a page.
Wikis are generally designed with the philosophy of making it easy to correct mistakes, rather than making it difficult to make them. Thus, while wikis are very open, they provide a means to verify the validity of recent additions to the body of pages. The most prominent, on almost every wiki, is the "Recent Changes" page—a specific list numbering recent edits, or a list of edits made within a given time frame.[15] Some wikis can filter the list to remove minor edits and edits made by automatic importing scripts ("bots").[16]
From the change log, other functions are accessible in most wikis: the revision history shows previous page versions and the diff feature highlights the changes between two revisions. Using the revision history, an editor can view and restore a previous version of the article. The diff feature can be used to decide whether or not this is necessary. A regular wiki user can view the diff of an edit listed on the "Recent Changes" page and, if it is an unacceptable edit, consult the history, restoring a previous revision; this process is more or less streamlined, depending on the wiki software used.[17]
In case unacceptable edits are missed on the "recent changes" page, some wiki engines provide additional content control. It can be monitored to ensure that a page, or a set of pages, keeps its quality. A person willing to maintain pages will be warned of modifications to the pages, allowing him or her to verify the validity of new editions quickly.[18] A watchlist is a common implementation of this.
Some wikis also implement "patrolled revisions", in which editors with the requisite credentials can mark some edits as not vandalism. A "flagged revisions" system can prevent edits from going live until they have been reviewed.[19]
Trustworthiness
Critics of publicly editable wiki systems argue that these systems could be easily tampered with, while proponents argue that the community of users can catch malicious content and correct it.[1] Lars Aronsson, a data systems specialist, summarizes the controversy as follows:
Most people, when they first learn about the wiki concept, assume that a Web site that can be edited by anybody would soon be rendered useless by destructive input. It sounds like offering free spray cans next to a grey concrete wall. The only likely outcome would be ugly graffiti and simple tagging, and many artistic efforts would not be long lived. Still, it seems to work very well.[9]
High editorial standards in medicine have led to the idea of expert-moderated wikis.[20] Some wikis allow one to link to specific versions of articles, which has been useful to the scientific community, in that expert peer reviewers could analyse articles, improve them and provide links to the trusted version of that article.[21]
Noveck points out that "participants are accredited by members of the wiki community, who have a vested interest in preserving the quality of the work product, on the basis of their ongoing participation." On controversial topics that have been subject to disruptive editing, a wiki may restrict editing to registered users.[22]
Security
The open philosophy of wiki - allowing anyone to edit content, does not ensure that every editor's intentions are well-mannered. For example, vandalism (changing wiki content to something offensive or nonsensical) can be a major problem. On larger wiki sites, such as those run by the Wikimedia Foundation, vandalism can go unnoticed for some period of time. Wikis, because of their open access nature, are susceptible to intentional disruption, known as "trolling". Wikis tend to take a soft-security[23][unreliable source] approach to the problem of vandalism; making damage easy to undo rather than attempting to prevent damage. Larger wikis often employ sophisticated methods, such as bots that automatically identify and revert vandalism and JavaScript enhancements that show characters that have been added in each edit. In this way vandalism can be limited to just "minor vandalism" or "sneaky vandalism", where the characters added/eliminated are so few that bots do not identify them and users do not pay much attention to them.[24][unreliable source]
The amount of vandalism a wiki receives depends on how open the wiki is. For instance, some wikis allow unregistered users, identified by their IP addresses, to edit content, whilst others limit this function to just registered users. Most wikis allow anonymous editing without an account,[25] but give registered users additional editing functions; on most wikis, becoming a registered user is a short and simple process. Some wikis require an additional waiting period before gaining access to certain tools. For example, on the English Wikipedia, registered users can rename pages only if their account is at least four days old. Other wikis such as the Portuguese Wikipedia use an editing requirement instead of a time requirement, granting extra tools after the user has made a certain number of edits to prove their trustworthiness and usefulness as an editor. Vandalism of Wikipedia is common (though policed and usually reverted) because it is extremely open, allowing anyone with a computer and Internet access to edit it, but making it grow rapidly. In contrast, Citizendium requires an editor's real name and short autobiography, affecting the growth of the wiki but sometimes helping stop vandalism.
Edit wars can also occur as users repetitively revert a page to the version they favor. Some wiki software allows an administrator to stop such edit wars by locking a page from further editing until a decision has been made on what version of the page would be most appropriate.[6]
Some wikis are in a better position than others to control behavior due to governance structures existing outside the wiki. For instance, a college teacher can create incentives for students to behave themselves on a class wiki they administer, by limiting editing to logged-in users and pointing out that all contributions can be traced back to the contributors. Bad behavior can then be dealt with in accordance with university policies.[8]
Potential malware vector
Malware can also be problem, as users can add links to sites hosting malicious code. For example, a German Wikipedia article about the Blaster Worm was edited to include a hyperlink to a malicious website. Users of vulnerable Microsoft Windows systems who followed the link would be infected.[6] A countermeasure is the use of software that prevents users from saving an edit that contains a link to a site listed on a blacklist of malware sites.[26]
Communities

Applications
The English Wikipedia has the largest user base among wikis on the World Wide Web[27] and ranks in the top 10 among all Web sites in terms of traffic.[28][needs update] Other large wikis include the WikiWikiWeb, Memory Alpha, Wikivoyage and Susning.nu, a Swedish-language knowledge base. Medical and health-related wiki examples include Ganfyd, an online collaborative medical reference that is edited by medical professionals and invited non-medical experts.[7]
Many wiki communities are private, particularly within enterprises. They are often used as internal documentation for in-house systems and applications. Some companies use wikis to allow customers to help produce software documentation.[29] A study of corporate wiki users found that they could be divided into "synthesizers" and "adders" of content. Synthesizers' frequency of contribution was affected more by their impact on other wiki users, while adders' contribution frequency was affected more by being able to accomplish their immediate work.[30] In 2005, the Gartner Group, noting the increasing popularity of wikis, estimated that they would become mainstream collaboration tools in at least 50% of companies by 2009.[31][needs update] Wikis can be used for project management.[32][33][unreliable source]
Wikis have also been used in the academic community for sharing and dissemination of information across institutional and international boundaries.[34] In those settings, they have been found useful for collaboration on grant writing, strategic planning, departmental documentation, and committee work.[35] In the mid-2000s, the increasing trend amongst industries toward collaboration was placing a heavier impetus upon educators to make students proficient in collaborative work, inspiring even greater interest in wikis being used in the classroom.[6]
Wikis have found some use within the legal profession, and within government. Examples include the Central Intelligence Agency's Intellipedia, designed to share and collect intelligence, dKospedia, which was used by the American Civil Liberties Union to assist with review of documents pertaining to internment of detainees in Guantánamo Bay;[36] and the wiki of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, used to post court rules and allow practitioners to comment and ask questions. The United States Patent and Trademark Office operates Peer-to-Patent, a wiki to allow the public to collaborate on finding prior art relevant to examination of pending patent applications. Queens, New York has used a wiki to allow citizens to collaborate on the design and planning of a local park. Cornell Law School founded a wiki-based legal dictionary called Wex, whose growth has been hampered by restrictions on who can edit.[22]
WikiNodes
WikiNodes are pages on wikis that describe related wikis. They are usually organized as neighbors and delegates. A neighbor wiki is simply a wiki that may discuss similar content or may otherwise be of interest. A delegate wiki is a wiki that agrees to have certain content delegated to that wiki.[37]
One way of finding a wiki on a specific subject is to follow the wiki-node network from wiki to wiki; another is to take a Wiki "bus tour", for example: Wikipedia's Tour Bus Stop.
Participants
The four basic types of users who participate in wikis are reader, author, wiki administrator and system administrator. The system administrator is responsible for installation and maintenance of the wiki engine and the container web server. The wiki administrator maintains wiki content and is provided additional functions pertaining to pages (e.g. page protection and deletion), and can adjust users' access rights by, for instance, blocking them from editing.[38]
Growth factors
A study of several hundred wikis showed that a relatively high number of administrators for a given content size is likely to reduce growth;[39] that access controls restricting editing to registered users tends to reduce growth; that a lack of such access controls tends to fuel new user registration; and that higher administration ratios (i.e. admins/user) have no significant effect on content or population growth.[40]
Conferences

Conferences and meetings about wikis in general include:
The International Symposium on Wikis (WikiSym), a conference dedicated to wiki research and practice in general.
RecentChangesCamp, an unconference on wiki-related topics
Conferences on specific wiki sites and applications include:
Atlassian Summit, an annual conference for users of Atlassian software, including Confluence[41]
RegioWikiCamp, a semi-annual unconference on "regiowikis", or wikis on cities and other geographic areas.[42]
SMWCon, a bi-annual conference for users and developers of Semantic MediaWiki.[43]
TikiFest, a frequently held meeting for users and developers of Tiki Wiki CMS Groupware.[44]
Wikimania, an annual conference dedicated to the research and practice of Wikimedia Foundation projects like Wikipedia.
Rules

Wikis typically have a set of rules governing user behavior. Wikipedia, for instance, has a labyrinthine set of policies and guidelines summed up in its five pillars: Wikipedia is an encyclopedia; Wikipedia has a neutral point of view; Wikipedia is free content; Wikipedians should interact in a respectful and civil manner; and Wikipedia does not have firm rules. Many wikis have adopted a set of commandments. For instance, Conservapedia commands, among other things, that its editors use "B.C." rather than "B.C.E." when referring to years prior to the common era and refrain from "unproductive activity."[45] One teacher instituted a commandment for a class wiki, "Wiki unto others as you would have them wiki unto you."[8]
Legal environment

Joint authorship of articles, in which different users participate in correcting, editing, and compiling the finished product, can also cause editors to become tenants in common of the copyright, making it impossible to republish without the permission of all co-owners, some of whose identities may be unknown due to pseudonymous or anonymous editing.[6] However, where persons contribute to a collective work such as an encyclopedia, there is no joint ownership if the contributions are separate and distinguishable.[46] Despite most wikis' tracking of individual contributions, the action of contributing to a wiki page is still arguably one of jointly correcting, editing, or compiling which would give rise to joint ownership.
Some copyright issues can be alleviated through the use of an open content license. Version 2 of the GNU Free Documentation License includes a specific provision for wiki relicensing; Creative Commons licenses are also popular. When no license is specified, an implied license to read and add content to a wiki may be deemed to exist on the grounds of business necessity and the inherent nature of a wiki, although the legal basis for such an implied license may not exist in all circumstances.[citation needed]
Wikis and their users can be held liable for certain activities that occur on the wiki. If a wiki owner displays indifference and forgoes controls (such as banning copyright infringers) that he could have exercised to stop copyright infringement, he may be deemed to have authorized infringement, especially if the wiki is primarily used to infringe copyrights or obtains direct financial benefit, such as advertising revenue, from infringing activities.[6] In the United States, wikis may benefit from Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act, which protects sites that engage in "Good Samaritan" policing of harmful material, with no requirement on the quality or quantity of such self-policing.[47] However, it has also been argued that a wiki's enforcement of certain rules, such as anti-bias, verifiability, reliable sourcing, and no-original-research policies, could pose legal risks.[48] When defamation occurs on a wiki, theoretically all users of the wiki can be held liable, because any of them had the ability to remove or amend the defamatory material from the "publication." It remains to be seen whether wikis will be regarded as more akin to an internet service provider, which is generally not held liable due to its lack of control over publications' contents, than a publisher.[6]
It has been recommended that trademark owners monitor what information is presented about their trademarks on wikis, since courts may use such content as evidence pertaining to public perceptions. Joshua Jarvis notes, "Once misinformation is identified, the trade mark owner can simply edit the entry."[49]
See also

Portal icon Internet portal
Comparison of wiki software
Content management system
Dispersed knowledge
History of wikis
List of wikis
Mass collaboration
Universal Edit Button
Wikis and education
References

^ Jump up to: a b c "wiki", Encyclopædia Britannica (London: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.) 1, 2007, retrieved April 10, 2008
^ Jump up to: a b Mitchell, Scott (July 2008), Easy Wiki Hosting, Scott Hanselman's blog, and Snagging Screens, MSDN Magazine, retrieved March 9, 2010
Jump up ^ Cunningham, Ward (June 27, 2002), What is a Wiki, WikiWikiWeb, retrieved April 10, 2008
Jump up ^ Hawaiian Words; Hawaiian to English [Retrieved September 19, 2008].
Jump up ^ Hasan, Heather (2012), Wikipedia, 3.5 million articles and counting, Rosen Publishing, p. 11, ISBN 9781448855575
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Black, Peter; Delaney, Hayden; Fitzgerald, Brian (2007), Legal Issues for Wikis: The Challenge of User-generated and Peer-produced Knowledge, Content and Culture 14, eLaw J.
^ Jump up to: a b MNK Boulos, I Maramba, S Wheeler (2006), "Wikis, blogs and podcasts: a new generation of Web-based tools for virtual collaborative clinical practice and education", BMC medical education (BMC Medical Education) 6: 41, doi:10.1186/1472-6920-6-41, PMC 1564136, PMID 16911779
^ Jump up to: a b c Naomi Augar, Ruth Raitman and Wanlei Zhou (2004), Teaching and learning online with wikis, Beyond the comfort zone
^ Jump up to: a b Ebersbach 2008, p. 10
Jump up ^ Cunningham, Ward (November 1, 2003), Correspondence on the Etymology of Wiki, WikiWikiWeb, retrieved March 9, 2007
Jump up ^ Cunningham, Ward (February 25, 2008), Wiki History, WikiWikiWeb, retrieved March 9, 2007
^ Jump up to: a b http://www.artima.com/intv/wiki.html
Jump up ^ Cunningham, Ward (July 26, 2007), Wiki Wiki Hyper Card, WikiWikiWeb, retrieved March 9, 2007
Jump up ^ Diamond, Graeme (March 1, 2007), March 2007 new words, OED, Oxford University Press, retrieved March 16, 2007
Jump up ^ Ebersbach 2008, p. 20
Jump up ^ Ebersbach 2008, p. 54
Jump up ^ Ebersbach 2008, p. 178
Jump up ^ Ebersbach 2008, p. 109
Jump up ^ Goldman, Eric, Wikipedia's Labor Squeeze and its Consequences 8, Journal on Telecommunications and High Technology Law
Jump up ^ Eugene Barsky; Dean Giustini (December 2007), "Introducing Web 2.0: wikis for health librarians", Journal of the Canadian Health Libraries Association 28 (4): 147–150, retrieved November 7, 2011. ISSN 1708-6892
Jump up ^ Kevin Yager (March 16, 2006), "Wiki ware could harness the Internet for science", Nature (Nature) 440 (7082): 278, Bibcode:2006Natur.440..278Y, doi:10.1038/440278a(subscription required)
^ Jump up to: a b Noveck, Beth Simone (March 2007), "Wikipedia and the Future of Legal Education", Journal of Legal Education 57 (1)(subscription required)
Jump up ^ Soft Security, UseModWiki, September 20, 2006, retrieved March 9, 2007
Jump up ^ "Security — Assothink Wiki" (in French). M3m.homelinux.org. Retrieved 2013-02-16.
Jump up ^ Ebersbach 2008, p. 108
Jump up ^ Meta.wikimedia.org
Jump up ^ WikiStats by S23, S23Wiki, April 3, 2008, retrieved April 7, 2007
Jump up ^ Alexa Web Search – Top 500, Alexa Internet, retrieved April 15, 2008
Jump up ^ C Müller, L Birn (September 6–8, 2006), Wikis for Collaborative Software Documentation, Proceedings of I-KNOW ’06
Jump up ^ A Majchrzak, C Wagner, D Yates (2006), "Corporate wiki users", Corporate wiki users: results of a survey, Symposium on Wikis, p. 99, doi:10.1145/1149453.1149472, ISBN 1-59593-413-8, retrieved April 25, 2011
Jump up ^ Conlin, Michelle (November 28, 2005), E-Mail Is So Five Minutes Ago, Businessweek
Jump up ^ HomePage [Retrieved 8 May 2012].
Jump up ^ Ways to Wiki: Project Management; 2010-01-04.
Jump up ^ MM Wanderley, D Birnbaum, J Malloch (2006), New Interfaces For Musical Expression, IRCAM – Centre Pompidou, p. 180, ISBN 2-84426-314-3
Jump up ^ Nancy T. Lombardo (June 2008), Putting Wikis to Work in Libraries 27 (2), Medical Reference Services Quarterly, pp. 129–145
Jump up ^ "SusanHu's FOIA Project UPDATE". Retrieved 2013-06-25.
Jump up ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20070810213702/http://wikinodes.wiki.taoriver.net/moin.fcg/FrequentlyAskedQuestions
Jump up ^ Cubric, Marija (2007), Analysis of the use of Wiki-based collaborations in enhancing student learning, University of Hertfordshire, retrieved April 25, 2011
Jump up ^ C Roth, D Taraborelli, N Gilbert (2008), Measuring wiki viability. An empirical assessment of the social dynamics of a large sample of wikis, The Centre for Research in Social Simulation, p. 3, "Figure 4 shows that having a relatively high number of administrators for a given content size is likely to reduce growth."
Jump up ^ C Roth, D Taraborelli, N Gilbert (2008), Measuring wiki viability. An empirical assessment of the social dynamics of a large sample of wikis, The Centre for Research in Social Simulation
Jump up ^ Summit.atlassian.com. Atlassian Summit homepage [Retrieved June 20, 2011].
Jump up ^ Wiki.regiowiki.eu. European RegioWikiSociety homepage; June 10, 2011 [Retrieved June 20, 2011].
Jump up ^ Semantic-mediawiki.org. SMWCon homepage [Retrieved June 20, 2011].
Jump up ^ Tiki.org. TikiFest homepage [Retrieved June 20, 2011].
Jump up ^ Conservapedia.com. Conservapedia.com; May 15, 2010 [Retrieved July 24, 2010].
Jump up ^ Redwood Music Ltd v. B Feldman & Co Ltd (RPC 385), 1979
Jump up ^ Kathleen M. Walsh & Sarah Oh (February 23, 2010), Self-Regulation: How Wikipedia Leverages User-Generated Quality Control Under Section 230
Jump up ^ Myers, Ken S. (2008), "Wikimmunity: Fitting the Communications Decency Act to Wikipedia", Harvard Journal of Law and Technology (The Berkman Center for Internet and Society) 20: 163
Jump up ^ Jarvis, Joshua (May 2008), Police your marks in a wiki world (179), Managing Intellectual Property, pp. 101–103
Further reading

Ebersbach, Anja (2008), Wiki: Web Collaboration, Springer Science+Business Media, ISBN 3-540-35150-7
Leuf, Bo (April 13, 2001), The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web, Addison–Wesley, ISBN 0-201-71499-X
Mader, Stewart (December 10, 2007), Wikipatterns, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-470-22362-6
Tapscott, Don (April 17, 2008), Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything, Portfolio Hardcover, ISBN 1-59184-193-3
External links

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WikiMatrix, a website for comparing wiki software and hosts
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WikiTeam, a volunteer group to preserve wikis
Murphy, Paula (April 2006). Topsy-turvy World of Wiki. University of California.
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[NH]Mr.Yankovic wrote:
[NH]Veritas wrote:
[NH]Mr.Yankovic wrote:Ward Cunningham and co-author Bo Leuf, in their book The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web, described the essence of the Wiki concept as follows:[citation needed]
A wiki invites all users to edit any page or to create new pages within the wiki Web site, using only a plain-vanilla Web browser without any extra add-ons.
Wiki promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making page link creation almost intuitively easy and showing whether an intended target page exists or not.
A wiki is not a carefully crafted site for casual visitors. Instead, it seeks to involve the visitor in an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that constantly changes the Web site landscape.
A wiki enables communities to write documents collaboratively, using a simple markup language and a web browser. A single page in a wiki website is referred to as a "wiki page", while the entire collection of pages, which are usually well interconnected by hyperlinks, is "the wiki". A wiki is essentially a database for creating, browsing, and searching through information. A wiki allows non-linear, evolving, complex and networked text, argument and interaction.[6]
A defining characteristic of wiki technology is the ease with which pages can be created and updated. Generally, there is no review before modifications are accepted. Many wikis are open to alteration by the general public without requiring registration of user accounts. Many edits can be made in real-time and appear almost instantly online. This can facilitate abuse of the system. Private wiki servers require user authentication to edit pages, and sometimes even to read them.
Maged N. Kamel Boulos, Cito Maramba and Steve Wheeler write that the open wikis produce a process of Social Darwinism. "'Unfit' sentences and sections are ruthlessly culled, edited and replaced if they are not considered 'fit', which hopefully results in the evolution of a higher quality and more relevant page. Whilst such openness may invite 'vandalism' and the posting of untrue information, this same openness also makes it possible to rapidly correct or restore a 'quality' wiki page."[7]
Editing wiki pages
Some wikis have an "edit" button or link directly on the page being viewed, if the user has permission to edit the page. This leads to an editing page which allows participants to structure and format wiki pages with a simplified markup language, sometimes known as wikitext (for example, starting a line of text with an asterisk often sets up a bulleted list). The style and syntax of wikitexts can vary greatly among wiki implementations,[example needed] some of which also allow HTML tags. Wikis favour plain-text editing, with fewer and simpler conventions than HTML, for indicating style and structure. Although limiting access to HTML and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) of wikis limits user ability to alter the structure and formatting of wiki content, there are some benefits. Limited access to CSS promotes consistency in the look and feel, and having JavaScript disabled prevents a user from implementing code that may limit other users' access.
MediaWiki syntax Equivalent HTML Rendered output
"Take some more [[tea]]," the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly.

"I've had '''nothing''' yet," Alice replied in an offended tone, "so I can't take more."

"You mean you can't take ''less''?" said the Hatter. "It's very easy to take ''more'' than nothing." <p>"Take some more <a href="/wiki/Tea" title="Tea">tea</a>," the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly.</p>

<p>"I've had <b>nothing</b> yet," Alice replied in an offended tone, "so I can't take more."</p>

<p>"You mean you can't take <i>less</i>?" said the Hatter. "It's very easy to take <i>more</i> than nothing."</p>
"Take some more tea," the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly.
"I've had nothing yet," Alice replied in an offended tone, "so I can't take more."
"You mean you can't take less?" said the Hatter. "It's very easy to take more than nothing."
Wikis can make WYSIWYG editing available to users, usually by means of JavaScript or an ActiveX control that translates graphically entered formatting instructions into the corresponding HTML tags or wikitext. In those implementations, the markup of a newly edited, marked-up version of the page is generated and submitted to the server transparently, shielding the user from this technical detail. However, WYSIWYG controls do not always provide all of the features available in wikitext, and some users prefer not to use a WYSIWYG editor. Hence, many of these sites offer some means to edit the wikitext directly.
Some wikis keep a record of changes made to wiki pages; often, every version of the page is stored. This means that authors can revert to an older version of the page, should it be necessary because a mistake has been made or the page has been vandalized. Many implementations, like MediaWiki, allow users to supply an edit summary when they edit a page; this is a short piece of text summarising the changes. It is not inserted into the article, but is stored along with that revision of the page, allowing users to explain what has been done and why; this is similar to a log message when making changes to a revision-control system.
Navigation
Within the text of most pages there are usually a large number of hypertext links to other pages. This form of non-linear navigation is more "native" to wiki than structured/formalized navigation schemes. That said, users can also create any number of index or table-of-contents pages, with hierarchical categorization or whatever form of organization they like. These may be challenging to maintain by hand, as multiple authors create and delete pages in an ad hoc manner. Wikis can provide one or more ways to categorize or tag pages to support the maintenance of such index pages.
Some wikis have a backlink feature, which displays all pages that link to a given page. It is typical in a wiki to create links to pages that do not yet exist, as a way to invite others to share what they know about a subject new to the wiki.
Linking and creating pages
Links are created using a specific syntax, the so-called "link pattern" (also see CURIE). Originally, most wikis[citation needed] used CamelCase to name pages and create links. These are produced by capitalizing words in a phrase and removing the spaces between them (the word "CamelCase" is itself an example). While CamelCase makes linking very easy, it also leads to links which are written in a form that deviates from the standard spelling. To link to a page with a single-word title, one must abnormally capitalize one of the letters in the word (e.g. "WiKi" instead of "Wiki"). CamelCase-based wikis are instantly recognizable because they have many links with names such as "TableOfContents" and "BeginnerQuestions." It is possible for a wiki to render the visible anchor of such links "pretty" by reinserting spaces, and possibly also reverting to lower case. However, this reprocessing of the link to improve the readability of the anchor is limited by the loss of capitalization information caused by CamelCase reversal. For example, "RichardWagner" should be rendered as "Richard Wagner", whereas "PopularMusic" should be rendered as "popular music". There is no easy way to determine which capital letters should remain capitalized. As a result, wikis now have "free linking" using brackets, and some disable CamelCase by default.
Searching
Most wikis offer at least a title search, and sometimes a full-text search. The scalability of the search depends on whether the wiki engine uses a database. Some wikis, such as PmWiki, use flat files.[8] MediaWiki's first versions used flat files, but it was rewritten by Lee Daniel Crocker in the early 2000s to be a database application. Indexed database access is necessary for high speed searches on large wikis. Alternatively, external search engines such as Google Search can sometimes be used on wikis with limited searching functions in order to obtain more precise results.
History

Main article: History of wikis


Wiki Wiki Shuttle at Honolulu International Airport
WikiWikiWeb was the first wiki.[9] Ward Cunningham started developing WikiWikiWeb in Portland, Oregon, in 1994, and installed it on the Internet domain c2.com on March 25, 1995. It was named by Cunningham, who remembered a Honolulu International Airport counter employee telling him to take the "Wiki Wiki Shuttle" bus that runs between the airport's terminals. According to Cunningham, "I chose wiki-wiki as an alliterative substitute for 'quick' and thereby avoided naming this stuff quick-web."[10][11]
Cunningham was in part inspired by Apple's HyperCard, which he had used before but which was single-user.[12] Apple had designed a system allowing users to create virtual "card stacks" supporting links among the various cards. Cunningham developed Vannevar Bush's ideas by allowing users to "comment on and change one another's text."[1][13] Cunningham says his goals were to link together the experiences of multiple people to create a new literature to document programming patterns, and to harness people's natural desire to talk and tell stories with a technology that would feel comfortable to those not used to "authoring".[12]
Wikipedia became the most famous wiki site, entering the top ten most popular websites in 2007. In the early 2000s, wikis were increasingly adopted in enterprise as collaborative software. Common uses included project communication, intranets, and documentation, initially for technical users. Some companies use wikis as their only collaborative software and as a replacement for static intranets, and some schools and universities use wikis to enhance group learning. There may be greater use of wikis behind firewalls than on the public Internet. On March 15, 2007, the word wiki was listed in the online Oxford English Dictionary.[14]
Implementations

Wiki software is a type of collaborative software that runs a wiki system, allowing web pages to be created and edited using a common web browser. It may be implemented as a series of scripts behind an existing web server, or as a standalone application server that runs on one or more web servers. The content is stored in a file system, and changes to the content are stored in a relational database management system. A commonly implemented software package is MediaWiki, which runs Wikipedia. See the List of wiki software for further information. Alternatively, personal wikis run as a standalone application on a single computer. WikidPad is an example. Or even single local HTML file with JavaScript inside – like TiddlyWiki.
Wikis can also be created on a "wiki farm", where the server side software is implemented by the wiki farm owner. PBwiki, Socialtext, Wetpaint, and Wikia are popular examples of such services. Some wiki farms can also make private, password-protected wikis. Note that free wiki farms generally contain advertising on every page. For more information, see Comparison of wiki farms.
Trust and security

Controlling changes
"Recent changes" redirects here. For the Wikipedia help page, see Help:Recent changes.


History comparison reports highlight the changes between two revisions of a page.
Wikis are generally designed with the philosophy of making it easy to correct mistakes, rather than making it difficult to make them. Thus, while wikis are very open, they provide a means to verify the validity of recent additions to the body of pages. The most prominent, on almost every wiki, is the "Recent Changes" page—a specific list numbering recent edits, or a list of edits made within a given time frame.[15] Some wikis can filter the list to remove minor edits and edits made by automatic importing scripts ("bots").[16]
From the change log, other functions are accessible in most wikis: the revision history shows previous page versions and the diff feature highlights the changes between two revisions. Using the revision history, an editor can view and restore a previous version of the article. The diff feature can be used to decide whether or not this is necessary. A regular wiki user can view the diff of an edit listed on the "Recent Changes" page and, if it is an unacceptable edit, consult the history, restoring a previous revision; this process is more or less streamlined, depending on the wiki software used.[17]
In case unacceptable edits are missed on the "recent changes" page, some wiki engines provide additional content control. It can be monitored to ensure that a page, or a set of pages, keeps its quality. A person willing to maintain pages will be warned of modifications to the pages, allowing him or her to verify the validity of new editions quickly.[18] A watchlist is a common implementation of this.
Some wikis also implement "patrolled revisions", in which editors with the requisite credentials can mark some edits as not vandalism. A "flagged revisions" system can prevent edits from going live until they have been reviewed.[19]
Trustworthiness
Critics of publicly editable wiki systems argue that these systems could be easily tampered with, while proponents argue that the community of users can catch malicious content and correct it.[1] Lars Aronsson, a data systems specialist, summarizes the controversy as follows:
Most people, when they first learn about the wiki concept, assume that a Web site that can be edited by anybody would soon be rendered useless by destructive input. It sounds like offering free spray cans next to a grey concrete wall. The only likely outcome would be ugly graffiti and simple tagging, and many artistic efforts would not be long lived. Still, it seems to work very well.[9]
High editorial standards in medicine have led to the idea of expert-moderated wikis.[20] Some wikis allow one to link to specific versions of articles, which has been useful to the scientific community, in that expert peer reviewers could analyse articles, improve them and provide links to the trusted version of that article.[21]
Noveck points out that "participants are accredited by members of the wiki community, who have a vested interest in preserving the quality of the work product, on the basis of their ongoing participation." On controversial topics that have been subject to disruptive editing, a wiki may restrict editing to registered users.[22]
Security
The open philosophy of wiki - allowing anyone to edit content, does not ensure that every editor's intentions are well-mannered. For example, vandalism (changing wiki content to something offensive or nonsensical) can be a major problem. On larger wiki sites, such as those run by the Wikimedia Foundation, vandalism can go unnoticed for some period of time. Wikis, because of their open access nature, are susceptible to intentional disruption, known as "trolling". Wikis tend to take a soft-security[23][unreliable source] approach to the problem of vandalism; making damage easy to undo rather than attempting to prevent damage. Larger wikis often employ sophisticated methods, such as bots that automatically identify and revert vandalism and JavaScript enhancements that show characters that have been added in each edit. In this way vandalism can be limited to just "minor vandalism" or "sneaky vandalism", where the characters added/eliminated are so few that bots do not identify them and users do not pay much attention to them.[24][unreliable source]
The amount of vandalism a wiki receives depends on how open the wiki is. For instance, some wikis allow unregistered users, identified by their IP addresses, to edit content, whilst others limit this function to just registered users. Most wikis allow anonymous editing without an account,[25] but give registered users additional editing functions; on most wikis, becoming a registered user is a short and simple process. Some wikis require an additional waiting period before gaining access to certain tools. For example, on the English Wikipedia, registered users can rename pages only if their account is at least four days old. Other wikis such as the Portuguese Wikipedia use an editing requirement instead of a time requirement, granting extra tools after the user has made a certain number of edits to prove their trustworthiness and usefulness as an editor. Vandalism of Wikipedia is common (though policed and usually reverted) because it is extremely open, allowing anyone with a computer and Internet access to edit it, but making it grow rapidly. In contrast, Citizendium requires an editor's real name and short autobiography, affecting the growth of the wiki but sometimes helping stop vandalism.
Edit wars can also occur as users repetitively revert a page to the version they favor. Some wiki software allows an administrator to stop such edit wars by locking a page from further editing until a decision has been made on what version of the page would be most appropriate.[6]
Some wikis are in a better position than others to control behavior due to governance structures existing outside the wiki. For instance, a college teacher can create incentives for students to behave themselves on a class wiki they administer, by limiting editing to logged-in users and pointing out that all contributions can be traced back to the contributors. Bad behavior can then be dealt with in accordance with university policies.[8]
Potential malware vector
Malware can also be problem, as users can add links to sites hosting malicious code. For example, a German Wikipedia article about the Blaster Worm was edited to include a hyperlink to a malicious website. Users of vulnerable Microsoft Windows systems who followed the link would be infected.[6] A countermeasure is the use of software that prevents users from saving an edit that contains a link to a site listed on a blacklist of malware sites.[26]
Communities

Applications
The English Wikipedia has the largest user base among wikis on the World Wide Web[27] and ranks in the top 10 among all Web sites in terms of traffic.[28][needs update] Other large wikis include the WikiWikiWeb, Memory Alpha, Wikivoyage and Susning.nu, a Swedish-language knowledge base. Medical and health-related wiki examples include Ganfyd, an online collaborative medical reference that is edited by medical professionals and invited non-medical experts.[7]
Many wiki communities are private, particularly within enterprises. They are often used as internal documentation for in-house systems and applications. Some companies use wikis to allow customers to help produce software documentation.[29] A study of corporate wiki users found that they could be divided into "synthesizers" and "adders" of content. Synthesizers' frequency of contribution was affected more by their impact on other wiki users, while adders' contribution frequency was affected more by being able to accomplish their immediate work.[30] In 2005, the Gartner Group, noting the increasing popularity of wikis, estimated that they would become mainstream collaboration tools in at least 50% of companies by 2009.[31][needs update] Wikis can be used for project management.[32][33][unreliable source]
Wikis have also been used in the academic community for sharing and dissemination of information across institutional and international boundaries.[34] In those settings, they have been found useful for collaboration on grant writing, strategic planning, departmental documentation, and committee work.[35] In the mid-2000s, the increasing trend amongst industries toward collaboration was placing a heavier impetus upon educators to make students proficient in collaborative work, inspiring even greater interest in wikis being used in the classroom.[6]
Wikis have found some use within the legal profession, and within government. Examples include the Central Intelligence Agency's Intellipedia, designed to share and collect intelligence, dKospedia, which was used by the American Civil Liberties Union to assist with review of documents pertaining to internment of detainees in Guantánamo Bay;[36] and the wiki of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, used to post court rules and allow practitioners to comment and ask questions. The United States Patent and Trademark Office operates Peer-to-Patent, a wiki to allow the public to collaborate on finding prior art relevant to examination of pending patent applications. Queens, New York has used a wiki to allow citizens to collaborate on the design and planning of a local park. Cornell Law School founded a wiki-based legal dictionary called Wex, whose growth has been hampered by restrictions on who can edit.[22]
WikiNodes
WikiNodes are pages on wikis that describe related wikis. They are usually organized as neighbors and delegates. A neighbor wiki is simply a wiki that may discuss similar content or may otherwise be of interest. A delegate wiki is a wiki that agrees to have certain content delegated to that wiki.[37]
One way of finding a wiki on a specific subject is to follow the wiki-node network from wiki to wiki; another is to take a Wiki "bus tour", for example: Wikipedia's Tour Bus Stop.
Participants
The four basic types of users who participate in wikis are reader, author, wiki administrator and system administrator. The system administrator is responsible for installation and maintenance of the wiki engine and the container web server. The wiki administrator maintains wiki content and is provided additional functions pertaining to pages (e.g. page protection and deletion), and can adjust users' access rights by, for instance, blocking them from editing.[38]
Growth factors
A study of several hundred wikis showed that a relatively high number of administrators for a given content size is likely to reduce growth;[39] that access controls restricting editing to registered users tends to reduce growth; that a lack of such access controls tends to fuel new user registration; and that higher administration ratios (i.e. admins/user) have no significant effect on content or population growth.[40]
Conferences

Conferences and meetings about wikis in general include:
The International Symposium on Wikis (WikiSym), a conference dedicated to wiki research and practice in general.
RecentChangesCamp, an unconference on wiki-related topics
Conferences on specific wiki sites and applications include:
Atlassian Summit, an annual conference for users of Atlassian software, including Confluence[41]
RegioWikiCamp, a semi-annual unconference on "regiowikis", or wikis on cities and other geographic areas.[42]
SMWCon, a bi-annual conference for users and developers of Semantic MediaWiki.[43]
TikiFest, a frequently held meeting for users and developers of Tiki Wiki CMS Groupware.[44]
Wikimania, an annual conference dedicated to the research and practice of Wikimedia Foundation projects like Wikipedia.
Rules

Wikis typically have a set of rules governing user behavior. Wikipedia, for instance, has a labyrinthine set of policies and guidelines summed up in its five pillars: Wikipedia is an encyclopedia; Wikipedia has a neutral point of view; Wikipedia is free content; Wikipedians should interact in a respectful and civil manner; and Wikipedia does not have firm rules. Many wikis have adopted a set of commandments. For instance, Conservapedia commands, among other things, that its editors use "B.C." rather than "B.C.E." when referring to years prior to the common era and refrain from "unproductive activity."[45] One teacher instituted a commandment for a class wiki, "Wiki unto others as you would have them wiki unto you."[8]
Legal environment

Joint authorship of articles, in which different users participate in correcting, editing, and compiling the finished product, can also cause editors to become tenants in common of the copyright, making it impossible to republish without the permission of all co-owners, some of whose identities may be unknown due to pseudonymous or anonymous editing.[6] However, where persons contribute to a collective work such as an encyclopedia, there is no joint ownership if the contributions are separate and distinguishable.[46] Despite most wikis' tracking of individual contributions, the action of contributing to a wiki page is still arguably one of jointly correcting, editing, or compiling which would give rise to joint ownership.
Some copyright issues can be alleviated through the use of an open content license. Version 2 of the GNU Free Documentation License includes a specific provision for wiki relicensing; Creative Commons licenses are also popular. When no license is specified, an implied license to read and add content to a wiki may be deemed to exist on the grounds of business necessity and the inherent nature of a wiki, although the legal basis for such an implied license may not exist in all circumstances.[citation needed]
Wikis and their users can be held liable for certain activities that occur on the wiki. If a wiki owner displays indifference and forgoes controls (such as banning copyright infringers) that he could have exercised to stop copyright infringement, he may be deemed to have authorized infringement, especially if the wiki is primarily used to infringe copyrights or obtains direct financial benefit, such as advertising revenue, from infringing activities.[6] In the United States, wikis may benefit from Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act, which protects sites that engage in "Good Samaritan" policing of harmful material, with no requirement on the quality or quantity of such self-policing.[47] However, it has also been argued that a wiki's enforcement of certain rules, such as anti-bias, verifiability, reliable sourcing, and no-original-research policies, could pose legal risks.[48] When defamation occurs on a wiki, theoretically all users of the wiki can be held liable, because any of them had the ability to remove or amend the defamatory material from the "publication." It remains to be seen whether wikis will be regarded as more akin to an internet service provider, which is generally not held liable due to its lack of control over publications' contents, than a publisher.[6]
It has been recommended that trademark owners monitor what information is presented about their trademarks on wikis, since courts may use such content as evidence pertaining to public perceptions. Joshua Jarvis notes, "Once misinformation is identified, the trade mark owner can simply edit the entry."[49]
See also

Portal icon Internet portal
Comparison of wiki software
Content management system
Dispersed knowledge
History of wikis
List of wikis
Mass collaboration
Universal Edit Button
Wikis and education
References

^ Jump up to: a b c "wiki", Encyclopædia Britannica (London: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.) 1, 2007, retrieved April 10, 2008
^ Jump up to: a b Mitchell, Scott (July 2008), Easy Wiki Hosting, Scott Hanselman's blog, and Snagging Screens, MSDN Magazine, retrieved March 9, 2010
Jump up ^ Cunningham, Ward (June 27, 2002), What is a Wiki, WikiWikiWeb, retrieved April 10, 2008
Jump up ^ Hawaiian Words; Hawaiian to English [Retrieved September 19, 2008].
Jump up ^ Hasan, Heather (2012), Wikipedia, 3.5 million articles and counting, Rosen Publishing, p. 11, ISBN 9781448855575
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Black, Peter; Delaney, Hayden; Fitzgerald, Brian (2007), Legal Issues for Wikis: The Challenge of User-generated and Peer-produced Knowledge, Content and Culture 14, eLaw J.
^ Jump up to: a b MNK Boulos, I Maramba, S Wheeler (2006), "Wikis, blogs and podcasts: a new generation of Web-based tools for virtual collaborative clinical practice and education", BMC medical education (BMC Medical Education) 6: 41, doi:10.1186/1472-6920-6-41, PMC 1564136, PMID 16911779
^ Jump up to: a b c Naomi Augar, Ruth Raitman and Wanlei Zhou (2004), Teaching and learning online with wikis, Beyond the comfort zone
^ Jump up to: a b Ebersbach 2008, p. 10
Jump up ^ Cunningham, Ward (November 1, 2003), Correspondence on the Etymology of Wiki, WikiWikiWeb, retrieved March 9, 2007
Jump up ^ Cunningham, Ward (February 25, 2008), Wiki History, WikiWikiWeb, retrieved March 9, 2007
^ Jump up to: a b http://www.artima.com/intv/wiki.html
Jump up ^ Cunningham, Ward (July 26, 2007), Wiki Wiki Hyper Card, WikiWikiWeb, retrieved March 9, 2007
Jump up ^ Diamond, Graeme (March 1, 2007), March 2007 new words, OED, Oxford University Press, retrieved March 16, 2007
Jump up ^ Ebersbach 2008, p. 20
Jump up ^ Ebersbach 2008, p. 54
Jump up ^ Ebersbach 2008, p. 178
Jump up ^ Ebersbach 2008, p. 109
Jump up ^ Goldman, Eric, Wikipedia's Labor Squeeze and its Consequences 8, Journal on Telecommunications and High Technology Law
Jump up ^ Eugene Barsky; Dean Giustini (December 2007), "Introducing Web 2.0: wikis for health librarians", Journal of the Canadian Health Libraries Association 28 (4): 147–150, retrieved November 7, 2011. ISSN 1708-6892
Jump up ^ Kevin Yager (March 16, 2006), "Wiki ware could harness the Internet for science", Nature (Nature) 440 (7082): 278, Bibcode:2006Natur.440..278Y, doi:10.1038/440278a(subscription required)
^ Jump up to: a b Noveck, Beth Simone (March 2007), "Wikipedia and the Future of Legal Education", Journal of Legal Education 57 (1)(subscription required)
Jump up ^ Soft Security, UseModWiki, September 20, 2006, retrieved March 9, 2007
Jump up ^ "Security — Assothink Wiki" (in French). M3m.homelinux.org. Retrieved 2013-02-16.
Jump up ^ Ebersbach 2008, p. 108
Jump up ^ Meta.wikimedia.org
Jump up ^ WikiStats by S23, S23Wiki, April 3, 2008, retrieved April 7, 2007
Jump up ^ Alexa Web Search – Top 500, Alexa Internet, retrieved April 15, 2008
Jump up ^ C Müller, L Birn (September 6–8, 2006), Wikis for Collaborative Software Documentation, Proceedings of I-KNOW ’06
Jump up ^ A Majchrzak, C Wagner, D Yates (2006), "Corporate wiki users", Corporate wiki users: results of a survey, Symposium on Wikis, p. 99, doi:10.1145/1149453.1149472, ISBN 1-59593-413-8, retrieved April 25, 2011
Jump up ^ Conlin, Michelle (November 28, 2005), E-Mail Is So Five Minutes Ago, Businessweek
Jump up ^ HomePage [Retrieved 8 May 2012].
Jump up ^ Ways to Wiki: Project Management; 2010-01-04.
Jump up ^ MM Wanderley, D Birnbaum, J Malloch (2006), New Interfaces For Musical Expression, IRCAM – Centre Pompidou, p. 180, ISBN 2-84426-314-3
Jump up ^ Nancy T. Lombardo (June 2008), Putting Wikis to Work in Libraries 27 (2), Medical Reference Services Quarterly, pp. 129–145
Jump up ^ "SusanHu's FOIA Project UPDATE". Retrieved 2013-06-25.
Jump up ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20070810213702/http://wikinodes.wiki.taoriver.net/moin.fcg/FrequentlyAskedQuestions
Jump up ^ Cubric, Marija (2007), Analysis of the use of Wiki-based collaborations in enhancing student learning, University of Hertfordshire, retrieved April 25, 2011
Jump up ^ C Roth, D Taraborelli, N Gilbert (2008), Measuring wiki viability. An empirical assessment of the social dynamics of a large sample of wikis, The Centre for Research in Social Simulation, p. 3, "Figure 4 shows that having a relatively high number of administrators for a given content size is likely to reduce growth."
Jump up ^ C Roth, D Taraborelli, N Gilbert (2008), Measuring wiki viability. An empirical assessment of the social dynamics of a large sample of wikis, The Centre for Research in Social Simulation
Jump up ^ Summit.atlassian.com. Atlassian Summit homepage [Retrieved June 20, 2011].
Jump up ^ Wiki.regiowiki.eu. European RegioWikiSociety homepage; June 10, 2011 [Retrieved June 20, 2011].
Jump up ^ Semantic-mediawiki.org. SMWCon homepage [Retrieved June 20, 2011].
Jump up ^ Tiki.org. TikiFest homepage [Retrieved June 20, 2011].
Jump up ^ Conservapedia.com. Conservapedia.com; May 15, 2010 [Retrieved July 24, 2010].
Jump up ^ Redwood Music Ltd v. B Feldman & Co Ltd (RPC 385), 1979
Jump up ^ Kathleen M. Walsh & Sarah Oh (February 23, 2010), Self-Regulation: How Wikipedia Leverages User-Generated Quality Control Under Section 230
Jump up ^ Myers, Ken S. (2008), "Wikimmunity: Fitting the Communications Decency Act to Wikipedia", Harvard Journal of Law and Technology (The Berkman Center for Internet and Society) 20: 163
Jump up ^ Jarvis, Joshua (May 2008), Police your marks in a wiki world (179), Managing Intellectual Property, pp. 101–103
Further reading

Ebersbach, Anja (2008), Wiki: Web Collaboration, Springer Science+Business Media, ISBN 3-540-35150-7
Leuf, Bo (April 13, 2001), The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web, Addison–Wesley, ISBN 0-201-71499-X
Mader, Stewart (December 10, 2007), Wikipatterns, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-470-22362-6
Tapscott, Don (April 17, 2008), Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything, Portfolio Hardcover, ISBN 1-59184-193-3
External links

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Nicolas Kim Coppola (born January 7, 1964), known professionally as Nicolas Cage, is an American actor, producer and director. He has performed in leading roles in a variety of films, ranging from romantic comedies and dramas to science fiction and action movies. Cage is known for his prolificacy, appearing in at least one film per year, nearly every year since 1980 (with the exception of 1985 and 1991).
In the early years of his career, Cage starred in critically acclaimed films such as Valley Girl (1983), Racing with the Moon (1984), Birdy (1985), Peggy Sue Got Married (1986), Raising Arizona (1987), Moonstruck (1987), Vampire's Kiss (1989), Wild at Heart (1990), Honeymoon in Vegas (1992), and Red Rock West (1993).
Cage received an Academy Award, a Golden Globe, and Screen Actors Guild Award for his performance as an alcoholic Hollywood writer in Leaving Las Vegas (1995) before coming to the attention of wider audiences with mainstream films such as The Rock (1996), Face/Off (1997), Con Air (1997), City of Angels (1998) and National Treasure (2004). He earned his second Academy Award nomination for his performance as Charlie and Donald Kaufman in Adaptation (2002). In 2002, he directed the film Sonny for which he was nominated for Grand Special Prize at Deauville Film Festival. Cage owns a production company Saturn Films and produced films such as Shadow of the Vampire (2000) and The Life of David Gale (2003).
Though his performances in The Weather Man (2005), Lord of War (2005), The Bad Lieutenant: Port of Call New Orleans (2009), and Kick-Ass (2010) earned critical acclaim, and films such as Ghost Rider (2007) and Knowing (2009) were box office successes, Cage has been strongly criticized in recent years for his choice of roles, some of which have been universally panned.[2][3] Most recently, he voiced the character of Grug in the animated film The Croods.
This article is part of a series on
Nicolas Cage
Biography Filmography Awards
Contents [hide]
1 Early life
2 Career
2.1 Acting career
2.2 Other works
3 Acting style
4 Praise
5 Personal life
5.1 Relationships and family
5.2 Political and religious views
5.3 Charity activities
5.4 Real estate and tax problems
5.5 Legal issues
6 Filmography
7 Awards and nominations
8 See also
9 References
10 External links
Early life

He was born Nicolas Kim Coppola on January 7, 1964,[1][4][5][6] in Long Beach, California, to parents August Floyd Coppola, a professor of literature, and Joy (Vogelsang), a dancer and choreographer. He was raised in a Catholic family.[7][8] His father was of Italian descent and his mother is of German and Polish descent.[9] His paternal grandparents were composer Carmine Coppola and actress Italia Pennino, and his paternal great-grandparents were immigrants from Bernalda, Basilicata, Italy.[10] Through his father, Cage is the nephew of director Francis Ford Coppola and actress Talia Shire, and the cousin of directors Roman Coppola and Sofia Coppola, film producer Gian-Carlo Coppola, and actors Robert Carmine and Jason Schwartzman. Cage's two brothers are New York radio personality Marc "The Cope" Coppola and director Christopher Coppola. He attended Beverly Hills High School, which is known for its many alumni who became entertainers. He aspired to act from an early age and also attended UCLA School of Theater, Film and Television. His first non-cinematic acting experience was in a school production of Golden Boy.
Career

Acting career
To avoid the appearance of nepotism as the nephew of Francis Ford Coppola, he changed his name early in his career to Nicolas Cage, inspired in part by the Marvel Comics superhero Luke Cage. Since his minor role in the film Fast Times at Ridgemont High, with Sean Penn, Cage has appeared in a wide range of films, both mainstream and offbeat. He tried out for the role of Dallas Winston in his uncle's film The Outsiders, based on S.E. Hinton's novel, but lost to Matt Dillon. He was also in Coppola's films Rumble Fish and Peggy Sue Got Married.
Other Cage roles included appearances in the acclaimed 1987 romantic-comedy film Moonstruck, also starring Cher; The Coen Brothers cult-classic comedy Raising Arizona; David Lynch's 1990 film Wild at Heart; a lead role in Martin Scorsese's 1999 New York City paramedic drama Bringing Out the Dead; and Ridley Scott's 2003 drama film Matchstick Men, in which he played an agoraphobic, mysophobic, obsessive-compulsive con artist with a tic disorder.
Cage has been nominated twice for an Academy Award, winning once for his performance as a suicidal alcoholic in Leaving Las Vegas. His other nomination was for his portrayal of real-life screenwriter Charlie Kaufman and Kaufman's fictional twin Donald in Adaptation. Despite these successes, most of his lower-profile films have performed poorly at the box office compared to his mainstream action/adventure roles. The suspense thriller 8mm (1999) was not a box office success, but is now considered a cult film. He took the lead role in the 2001 film Captain Corelli's Mandolin and learned to play the mandolin from scratch for the part. He made his directorial debut with 2002's Sonny. In 2005, two films he headlined, Lord of War and The Weather Man, failed to find a significant audience despite nationwide releases and good reviews for his acting in those roles. Poor reviews for The Wicker Man resulted in low box office sales. The much criticized Ghost Rider (2007), based on the Marvel Comics character, fared better, earning more than $45 million (the top earner) during its opening weekend and over $208 million worldwide through the weekend ending on March 25, 2007. Also in 2007, he starred in Next, which shared the concept of a glimpse into an alternate timeline with Cage's film, The Family Man (2000).
Most of Cage's movies that have achieved financial success were in the action/adventure genre. In his second-highest grossing film to date, National Treasure, he plays an eccentric historian who goes on a dangerous adventure to find treasure hidden by the Founding Fathers of the United States. Other action hits include The Rock, in which Cage plays a young FBI chemical weapons expert who infiltrates Alcatraz Island in hopes of neutralizing a terrorist threat, Face/Off, a John Woo film where he plays both a hero and a villain, and World Trade Center, director Oliver Stone's film regarding the September 11, 2001 attacks. He had a small but notable role as the Chinese criminal mastermind Dr. Fu Manchu in Rob Zombie's fake trailer Werewolf Women of the S.S. from the B-movie double feature Grindhouse.
Cage made his directorial debut with Sonny, a low-budget drama starring James Franco as a male prostitute whose mother (Brenda Blethyn) serves as his pimp. Cage had a small role in the film, which received poor reviews and a short run in a limited number of theatres. Cage's producing career includes Shadow of the Vampire, the first effort from Saturn Films.
In early December 2006, Cage announced at the Bahamas International Film Festival that he planned to curtail his future acting endeavors to pursue other interests. On The Dresden Files for the Sci-Fi Channel, Cage is listed as the executive producer.
In November 2007, Cage was spotted backstage at a Ring of Honor wrestling show in New York City researching his role for The Wrestler. The role was ultimately played by Mickey Rourke, who received an Academy Award nomination for his performance.[11] Wrestler Director Darren Aronofsky, in an interview with slashfilm.com, said of Cage's decision to leave the film that: "Nic was a complete gentleman, and he understood that my heart was with Mickey and he stepped aside. I have so much respect for Nic Cage as an actor and I think it really could have worked with Nic but ... you know, Nic was incredibly supportive of Mickey and he is old friends with Mickey and really wanted to help with this opportunity, so he pulled himself out of the race.[12] "


Cage at the 66th Venice Film Festival in September 2009
In 2008, Cage appeared as Joe, a contract killer who undergoes a change of heart while on a work outing in Bangkok, in the film Bangkok Dangerous. The film is shot by the Pang Brothers and has a distinct South-East Asian flavor. In 2009, Cage starred in science fiction thriller Knowing, directed by Alex Proyas. In the film, he plays an MIT professor who examines the contents of a time capsule unearthed at his son's elementary school. Startling predictions found inside the capsule that have already come true lead him to believe the world is going to end at the close of the week, and that he and his son are somehow involved in the destruction. The film received mainly negative reviews but was the box office winner on its opening weekend. Also in 2009, Cage starred in the film The Bad Lieutenant: Port of Call New Orleans, directed by acclaimed German director Werner Herzog. He portrayed a corrupt police officer with gambling, drug and alcohol addictions. The film was very well received by critics, holding a rating of 87% positive reviews on review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes.[13] Cage received lauds for his performance, with Michael Phillips of the Chicago Tribune writing "Herzog has found his ideal interpreter, a performer whose truth lies deep in the artifice of performance: ladies and gentlemen, Nicolas Cage, at his finest."[14] This film reunited Cage with Eva Mendes, who played his love interest in Ghost Rider. In 2010, Cage starred in the period piece Season of the Witch, playing a 14th-century knight transporting a girl accused of causing the Black Plague to a monastery, and The Sorcerer's Apprentice, in which he played the sorcerer.[15]
In 2012, Cage reprised his role in Ghost Rider's sequel Ghost Rider: Spirit of Vengeance. He voiced the character Grug Crood in the animated film The Croods, which was released in 2013. The Croods received positive reviews from critics and was a box office success grossing $585 million against a budget of $135 million.[16]
Other works
Cage, an avid comic book fan, auctioned a collection of 400 vintage comics through Heritage Auctions for over $1.6 million in 2002.[17]
In 2007, he created a comic book with his son Weston, called Voodoo Child, which was published by Virgin Comics.
Cage is a fan and collector of painter and underground comic artist Robert Williams. He has written introductions for Juxtapoz magazine and purchased the painting Death On The Boards.[18]
Acting style

In February 2011, Cage said that, at a certain point in his career, he realized that he had developed his own method of acting, which he described as "Nouveau Shamanic." He noted, "at some point I'll have to write a book" about it.[19]
Praise

Nicolas Cage's acting has been praised by influential film critic Roger Ebert, who wrote in his "Great Movies" essay about the film Adaptation, that: "There are often lists of the great living male movie stars: De Niro, Nicholson and Pacino, usually. How often do you see the name of Nicolas Cage? He should always be up there. He's daring and fearless in his choice of roles, and unafraid to crawl out on a limb, saw it off and remain suspended in air. No one else can project inner trembling so effectively.... He always seems so earnest. However improbable his character, he never winks at the audience. He is committed to the character with every atom and plays him as if he were him."[20] In response to mixed reviews of Knowing and their focus on criticizing Cage, Ebert defended both Cage as an actor and the movie to which, in contrast to other critics, Ebert gave four out of four stars.[21]
Lord of War co-star Ethan Hawke said of Cage: "He's the only actor since Marlon Brando that's actually done anything new with the art of acting; he's successfully taken us away from an obsession with naturalism into a kind of presentation style of acting that I imagine was popular with the old troubadours." While stating that Cage had hurt his career by working on too many poor projects ("He's put a little too much water in his beer"), Hawke added: "If I could erase his bottom half bad movies, and only keep his top half movies, he would blow everyone else out of the water."[22]
In the 1996 Academy Awards, Cage was awarded the Academy Award for Best Actor for his performance in Leaving Las Vegas.[23] After receiving the award, Cage went on to star in some high budget action movies which received criticism by actors such Stephen Baldwin, Nick Nolte and Sean Penn who referring to his latest movie choices included Snake Eyes, said to the New York Times that Cage is "no longer an actor. Now he's more like a performer."[24] However, in his Oscar acceptance speech for Mystic River, Penn referring to Cage's performance in critically acclaimed Matchstick Men mentioned it among the best performances of the year.[25]
In May 2001, Cage was awarded an Honorary Doctorate in Fine Arts by California State University, Fullerton. He spoke at the commencement ceremony.[26]
Personal life

Relationships and family
In 1988, Cage began dating actress Christina Fulton, who later bore their son, Weston Coppola Cage (born December 26, 1990). Weston was the lead singer of the black metal band Eyes of Noctum, but broke up in 2012. His new band, Arsh Anubis, was formed in 2011 and is the same genre as his previous band. Weston also appeared in Cage's film Lord of War as Vladimir, a young Ukrainian mechanic who quickly disarms a Mil Mi-24 helicopter.
Cage has been married three times. His first wife was actress Patricia Arquette (married on April 8, 1995, divorce finalized on May 18, 2001).
Cage's second marriage was to singer/songwriter Lisa Marie Presley, daughter of Elvis Presley. Cage is an Elvis fan and used the star as the base of his performance in Wild at Heart. Presley and Cage married on August 10, 2002 and filed for divorce on November 25, 2002 which was finalized on May 16, 2004. The divorce proceeding was longer than the marriage.[27]
Cage met his third and current wife Alice Kim, a former waitress who previously worked at the Los Angeles restaurant Kabuki and at the Los Angeles-based Korean nightclub, Le Privé. She bore their son, Kal-El, (after Superman's birth name[28]) on October 3, 2005. Cage was once considered for the role of Superman in a film to be directed by Tim Burton. Alice had a minor role in the 2007 film Next, which Cage produced. They were married at a private ranch in Northern California on July 30, 2004.[29]
Political and religious views
Cage grew up in a family of Catholic background but he usually doesn't talk about religion publicly or refuses to answer on religion-connected questions in his interviews.[30] However, back in 1996, he revealed that he has "no religion" in his life and that he "wasn't raised in that way."[31] When he asked about the movie Knowing being a religion-themed film or not, Cage replied: "Any of my personal beliefs or opinions runs the risk of impinging on your own relationship with the movie. I feel movies are best left enigmatic, left raising more questions than answers. I don't want to ever preach. So [whatever you get] from the movie [is] far more interesting than I could ever offer."[32]
During his visit to University of California, Santa Cruz he has stated he's not politically active actor and that he can do it in his work as he learned more about nuclear power from the movie The China Syndrome.[33] Cage has donated about $5,000 to Democratic Party since 1994.[34]
Charity activities
He's considered as one of the most generous stars of Hollywood[35] as he donated $2 million to Amnesty International for to use to offer rehabilitation shelters, medical services and psychological and reintegration services to some of the 300,000 youngsters forced to fight in conflicts across the world.[36] He has also donated one million dollars to the victims of Hurricane Katrina.[37] He became the first artist to support ArtWorks, an artist engagement program to raise awareness of fundamental rights at work, including freedom from slavery and from child labor.[38] Cage has also honored with Humanitarian award from United Nations for his works and appointed as an UN ambassador for Global Justice.[39] He led a campaign around the film Lord of War to raise awareness about international Arms Control, supported "Heal the Bay", the United Negro College Fund efforts, and the Royal United Hospital's Forever Friends Appeal to build intensive care units for babies.[40]
Real estate and tax problems
Nicolas Cage is one of Hollywood's highest-paid actors, earning $40 million in 2009 according to Forbes Magazine.[41]
Cage had a Malibu home where he and Kim lived, but sold the property in 2005 for $10 million. In 2004 he bought a property on Paradise Island, Bahamas. In May 2006, he bought a 40-acre (160,000 m2) island in the Exuma archipelago, some 85 miles (137 km) southeast of Nassau and close to a similar island owned by Faith Hill and Tim McGraw.
He once owned the medieval castle of Schloss Neidstein in the Oberpfalz region in Germany, which he bought in 2006 and sold in 2009 for $2.5 million. His grandmother was German, living in Cochem an der Mosel.[42]


Schloss Neidstein in Bavaria was owned by Cage between 2007 and 2009.
In August 2007, Cage purchased "Grey Craig", a 24,000-square-foot (2,200 m2) brick-and-stone country manor in Middletown, Rhode Island. With an estate occupying 26 acres (110,000 m2) the home has 12 bedrooms and 10 full bathrooms and overlooks the Atlantic Ocean. It borders the Norman Bird Sanctuary to the west. The sale ranked among the state of Rhode Island's most expensive residential purchases until eclipsed that same year, 2007, by the $17.15 million sale of the Miramar mansion on Bellevue Avenue in Newport.
Also in 2007, the actor purchased Midford Castle in Somerset, England.[43][44][45] Shortly after selling his German castle, Cage also put homes in Rhode Island, Louisiana, Nevada, and California, as well as a $7 million island in the Bahamas, up for sale.
On July 14, 2009, the Internal Revenue Service filed documents in New Orleans in connection with a federal tax lien against property owned by Cage in Louisiana, concerning unpaid federal taxes. The IRS alleges that Cage failed to pay over $6.2 million in federal income tax for the year 2007.[46] In addition, the Internal Revenue Service has another lien for more than $350,000 in unpaid taxes dating from 2002 to 2004.[47] Cage filed a $20 million lawsuit on October 16, 2009, against his business manager, Samuel J. Levin, alleging negligence and fraud.[48] The lawsuit states that Levin "had failed to pay taxes when they were due and had placed [Cage] in speculative and risky real estate investments 'resulting in (the actor) suffering catastrophic losses'."[48] Cage is also facing separate lawsuits from East West Bank[49] and Red Curb Investments for unpaid, multimillion dollar loans.
Three-storey rectangular building

The LaLaurie Mansion in New Orleans was purchased anonymously by Cage in 2007 and sold in 2009.
Samuel Levin filed a counter-complaint and responded to the lawsuit in a filing stating that he warned Cage that he was living beyond his means and urged him to spend less. Levin's filing states that "instead of listening to Levin, cross-defendant Cage (Coppola) spent most of his free time shopping for high ticket purchases, and wound up with 15 personal residences", Levin's complaint continued: "Likewise, Levin advised Coppola against buying a Gulfstream jet, against buying and owning a flotilla of yachts, against buying and owning a squadron of Rolls Royces, against buying millions of dollars in jewelry and art."[50]
In his filing Levin says that in 2007 Cage's "shopping spree entailed the purchase of three additional residences at a total cost of more than $33 million; the purchase of 22 automobiles (including 9 Rolls Royces); 12 purchases of expensive jewelry; and 47 purchases of artwork and exotic items."[50] One of those exotic items was a dinosaur skull of a Tarbosaurus for which Nicolas Cage paid $276,000 in an auction after winning a bidding contest against Leonardo DiCaprio.[51]
According to Cage, he owned the "Most Haunted House in America", a home located in the French Quarter of New Orleans, Louisiana.[52] The home is known as "The LaLaurie house" after its former owner Delphine LaLaurie. The house was foreclosed and sold at auction on November 12, 2009 along with another New Orleans property for a total of $5.5 million, in the wake of his financial problems.[53]
His Bel Air home, which had six loans totaling $18 million on it, failed to sell at an April 2010 foreclosure auction despite an opening offer of $10.4 million, substantially less than the $35 million that Cage had originally tried to sell it for. The home, built in 1940 for $110,000 had been owned by Dean Martin and singer Tom Jones.[54] The home eventually sold in November 2010 for $10.5 million.[55] Another home in Nevada also faces foreclosure auction.[53]
In November 2011, Cage also sold his Action Comics 1 in an online auction for a record-breaking $2.16 million (the previous record being 1.5), to assist paying his tax liens and other debts. Cage purchased the comic in 1997 for $110,000.[56]
Legal issues
In December 2009, Christina Fulton sued Cage for $13 million and the house she is living in. The suit was in response to an order that she leave the dwelling that was brought about by Cage's financial difficulties.[57]
On April 15, 2011, at 11:30 pm, Cage was arrested in New Orleans in the city's famed French Quarter district for suspicion of domestic abuse battery, disturbing the peace and public intoxication, after a police officer was flagged down by onlookers after Cage allegedly grabbed his wife's upper arm while appearing to be under the influence of alcohol.[58] Cage was held in police custody until a bail of $11,000 was posted by Duane "Dog" Chapman.[59][60] He was later ordered to appear in court on May 31, 2011.[61] On May 5, 2011, it was announced that the charges against Cage had been dropped.[62][63][64][65]
Filmography

Main article: Nicolas Cage filmography
Awards and nominations

Main article: List of awards and nominations received by Nicolas Cage
See also

Portal icon Film portal
Coppola family tree
List of oldest and youngest Academy Award winners and nominees
References

^ Jump up to: a b "Nicolas Cage – Biography". Tiscali.co.uk. Retrieved October 21, 2009.
Jump up ^ "Will 'Season of the Witch' Hurt Nicolas Cage's Quote?". Forbes. Retrieved September 9, 2013.
Jump up ^ Stolen Preview - AV Club
Jump up ^ Nicolas Cage – Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 18.12.2010.
Jump up ^ Contemporary theatre, film, and television – Gale Research Company, 2000.
Jump up ^ Nicolas Cage – Corinne J. Naden, Rose Blue. Lucent Books, 2003.
Jump up ^ "Nicholas Cage is back with digit-al thriller 'Knowing'". New York: Daily News. Retrieved July 27, 2011.[dead link]
Jump up ^ "This much I know: Karen Koster". Irish Examiner. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
Jump up ^ "CRC's EARS Blog :: EARS: September 2004". Earsxxi.blogspot.ca. Retrieved 2012-08-09.
Jump up ^ Cowie, Peter (1988). Coppola: a biography. Da Capo Press. p. 2. ISBN 0-306-80598-7.
Jump up ^ Bruno, Mike (November 12, 2007). "Mickey Rourke Starring in 'The Wrestler'". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
Jump up ^ Sciretta, Peter. "Interview: Darren Aronofsky – Part 1". slashfilm.com. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
Jump up ^ "'Bad Lieutenant: Port of Call New Orleans' – 3½ stars". Au.rottentomatoes.com. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
Jump up ^ "Talking Pictures: 'Bad Lieutenant: Port of Call New Orleans' – 3½ stars". Featuresblogs.chicagotribune.com. November 19, 2009. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
Jump up ^ "MTV". Moviesblog.mtv.com. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
Jump up ^ "The Croods". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
Jump up ^ Susman, Gary (October 1, 2002). "Book Value". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 4, 2010.
Jump up ^ "ISSUU". ISSUU. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
Jump up ^ Nicolas Cage Has His Own Acting Method and It’s Called ‘Nouveau Shamanic’" Movieline. Retrieved August 23, 2011
Jump up ^ "Adaptation. :: rogerebert.com :: Great Movies". rogerebert.suntimes.com. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
Jump up ^ "Love and hate and "Knowing"
-- or, do wings have angels? :: rogerebert.com :: News & comment". rogerebert.suntimes.com. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
Jump up ^ Hawke, Ethan (2013-06-05). "I am Ethan Hawke - AMAA". Reddit. Retrieved 2013-06-14.
Jump up ^ "1995 Academy Awards Winners and History". FilmSite.org. Retrieved August 18, 2010.
Jump up ^ People Magazine. "Picking on Nic: Nicolas Cage bites back after Sean Penn ridicules his career." April 5, 1999 Vol. 51 No. 12http://www.people.com/people/archive/article/0,,20127825,00.html
Jump up ^ Oscar accaptence speech of Sean Penn
Jump up ^ "CSU Newsline". Calstate.edu. April 16, 2001. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
Jump up ^ Silverman, Stephen M (May 26, 2004). "Cage-Presley Union Now a Memory". People. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
Jump up ^ "Baby boy for actor Cage and wife". BBC Online (BBC NEWS). October 4, 2005. Retrieved August 8, 2010.
Jump up ^ "Nicolas Cage and Alice Kim Marriage Profile". About.com. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
Jump up ^ "This much I know: Karen Koster". Irish Examiner. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
Jump up ^ IMDb profile quotes
Jump up ^ Nicolas Cage talks "Knowing", religion
Jump up ^ "Nicolas Cage visits UCSC". University of California, Santa Cruz. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
Jump up ^ Celebrity donations - Nicolas Cage
Jump up ^ Generous Celebs - Forbes Magazine
Jump up ^ "Nicolas Cage Donate $2 million to Amnesty". Hollywood.com. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
Jump up ^ Cage donates 1 Million to Katrina's Victims
Jump up ^ "ILO launches artists programme, Nicolas Cage calls for an end to child labour". International Labour Organization. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
Jump up ^ "Nicolas Cage wins United Nations humanitarian award". BBC News. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
Jump up ^ "Nicolas Cage Appointed UNODC Goodwill Ambassador for Global Justice". UNODC. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
Jump up ^ Lauren Beale (April 8, 2010). "Foreclosure auction of Nicolas Cage's mansion is a flop". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 11, 2010.
Jump up ^ "Oberpfalznetz – Medienhaus DER NEUE TAG". Zeitung.org. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
Jump up ^ "Hollywood actor is king of the castle in Bath". Daily Mail (London). July 29, 2007. Retrieved January 15, 2008.
Jump up ^ Hodgson, Martin (July 30, 2007). "Nicolas Cage joins Britain’s castle-owning classes". The Independent (London). Retrieved January 15, 2008.
Jump up ^ Chittenden, Maurice (July 29, 2007). "Another day, another castle: Cage adds to his empire". The Times (London). Retrieved January 15, 2008.
Jump up ^ "Nicolas Cage hit with $6.2 million tax bill". Houston Chronicle. August 3, 2009.
Jump up ^ Rodriguez, Brenda (November 1, 2009). "Nicolas Cage Blames Advisor for Financial Ruin". People. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
^ Jump up to: a b Serjeant, Jill (October 16, 2009). "Nicolas Cage sues ex-manager for "financial ruin". Reuters. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
Jump up ^ "Nicolas Cage sued for $2 million". Economictimes.indiatimes.com. October 3, 2009. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
^ Jump up to: a b "Nic Cage spent too much: Ex-manager says". CNN. November 17, 2009. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
Jump up ^ "Actors in head-to-head at auction house – over a dinosaur skull". Daily Mail (London). July 29, 2007. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
Jump up ^ Nicolas Cage interview – "Late Show with David Letterman," Sept. 2, 2008
^ Jump up to: a b Yousuf, Hibah (November 13, 2009). "Nicolas Cage: Movie star, foreclosure victim". CNN. Retrieved November 14, 2009.
Jump up ^ Beale, Lauren (April 8, 2010). "Foreclosure auction of Nicolas Cage's mansion is a flop". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 25, 2010.
Jump up ^ Beale, Lauren (November 11, 2010). "Nicolas Cage's Bel-Air home goes to new owner for just $10.5 million". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 25, 2010.
Jump up ^ "Super price for Superman comic - CNN.com". CNN. December 2, 2011.
Jump up ^ The Detroit Free Press, Thursday, December 10, 2009, page 12D
Jump up ^ "Actor Nicolas Cage arrested in New Orleans". Reuters. April 16, 2011.
Jump up ^ Mike Vilensky. "Nicolas Cage Arrested in New Orleans (Updated)". Vulture.
Jump up ^ Anita Bennett (April 17, 2011). "Nicolas Cage arrested after 'drunken assault on wife in the street'". Daily Mail (UK).
Jump up ^ "Nicolas Cage arrested in New Orleans". MSN.
Jump up ^ Eugene Ernest (May 9, 2011). "Court Cleared all Allegations on Nicolas Cage".
Jump up ^ "Domestic Abuse Charges Against Nicolas Cage Dropped". May 6, 2011.
Jump up ^ "Charges dropped against Nicolas Cage in New Orleans". May 6, 2011.
Jump up ^ "Nicolas Cage's disorder charges dropped due to lack of evidence". The Mirror. May 5, 2011.
External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nicolas Cage.
Nicolas Cage at the Internet Movie Database
Nicolas Cage at AllRovi
World Trade Center Interview with Nicolas Cage From IGN FilmForce
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Coppola family
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Academy Award for Best Actor
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Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama
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MTV Movie Award for Best On-Screen Duo
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National Board of Review Award for Best Actor
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Screen Actors Guild Award – Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Leading Role (1994–2000)
Authority control
WorldCat VIAF: 79745300 LCCN: n88034915 ISNI: 0000 0001 2247 8062 GND: 129454532 NDL: 00730610
Categories: 1964 births20th-century American male actors21st-century American male actorsAmerican male film actorsAmerican film directorsAmerican film producersAmerican people of German descentAmerican people of Italian descentAmerican male voice actorsArquette familyBest Actor Academy Award winnersBest Drama Actor Golden Globe (film) winnersCoppola familyLiving peopleMale actors from Long Beach, CaliforniaScience fiction fansFilm directors from CaliforniaAmerican people of Polish descentOutstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Leading Role Screen Actors Guild Award winnersMale actors of Italian descent
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Re: put randomness here!

Post by [NH]CommandoChris on Sat Jan 25, 2014 2:03 pm

This is sad

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Re: put randomness here!

Post by [NH]DarkWarrior on Sat Jan 25, 2014 2:11 pm

Are we just going to copy+paste Wikipedia entries now?

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Re: put randomness here!

Post by [NH]_$rijapto on Sat Jan 25, 2014 5:13 pm

If thats what it takes....
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Re: put randomness here!

Post by [NH]Mr.Yankovic on Sat Jan 25, 2014 8:59 pm

Hey it was a one time thing, don't read too much into it
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Re: put randomness here!

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Re: put randomness here!

Post by [NH]_$rijapto on Sun Jan 26, 2014 8:29 pm

randomness
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Re: put randomness here!

Post by [NH]DarkWarrior on Sun Jan 26, 2014 8:30 pm

[NH]_Srijapto wrote:randomness
randomnes

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Re: put randomness here!

Post by [NH]_$rijapto on Sun Jan 26, 2014 8:33 pm

[NH]the_dark_warrior wrote:
[NH]_Srijapto wrote:randomness
randomnes
randomne
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